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- The Radio Amateur's Hand Book - 2/44 -
and the Rock Island railroads being pioneers in this field. Messages have also been received by automobiles, and one inventor has successfully demonstrated a motor car controlled entirely by wireless. This method of communication is being employed more and more by newspapers. It is also of great service in reporting forest fires.
Colleges are beginning to take up the subject, some of the first being Tufts College, Hunter College, Princeton, Yale, Harvard, and Columbia, which have regularly organized departments for students in wireless.
Instead of the unwieldy and formidable looking apparatus of a short time ago, experimenters are now vying with each other in making small or novel equipment. Portable sets of all sorts are being fashioned, from one which will go into an ordinary suitcase, to one so small it will easily slip into a Brownie camera. One receiver depicted in a newspaper was one inch square! Another was a ring for the finger, with a setting one inch by five-eighths of an inch, and an umbrella as a "ground." Walking sets with receivers fastened to one's belt are also common. Daily new novelties and marvels are announced.
Meanwhile, the radio amateur to whom this book is addressed may have his share in the joys of wireless. To get all of these good things out of the ether one does not need a rod or a gun--only a copper wire made fast at either end and a receiving set of some kind. If you are a sheer beginner, then you must be very careful in buying your apparatus, for since the great wave of popularity has washed wireless into the hearts of the people, numerous companies have sprung up and some of these are selling the veriest kinds of junk.
And how, you may ask, are you going to be able to know the good from the indifferent and bad sets? By buying a make of a firm with an established reputation. I have given a few offhand at the end of this book. Obviously there are many others of merit--so many, indeed, that it would be quite impossible to get them all in such a list, but these will serve as a guide until you can choose intelligently for yourself.
A. F. C.
I. HOW TO BEGIN WIRELESS
Kinds of Wireless Systems--Parts of a Wireless System--The Easiest Way to Start--About Aerial Wire Systems--About the Receiving Apparatus--About Transmitting Stations--Kinds of Transmitters--The Spark Gap Wireless Telegraph Transmitter--The Vacuum Table Telegraph Transmitter--The Wireless Telephone Transmitter.
II. PUTTING UP YOUR AERIAL
Kinds of Aerial Wire Systems--How to Put Up a Cheap Receiving Aerial--A Two-wire Aerial--Connecting in the Ground--How to Put up a Good Aerial--An Inexpensive Good Aerial--The Best Aerial That Can be Made--Assembling the Aerial--Making a Good Ground.
III. SIMPLE TELEGRAPH AND TELEPHONE RECEIVING SETS
Assembled Wireless Receiving Sets--Assembling Your Own Receiving Set--The Crystal Detector--The Tuning Coil--The Loose Coupled Tuning Coil--Fixed and Variable Condensers--About Telephone Receivers-- Connecting Up the Parts--Receiving Set No. 2--Adjusting the No. 1 Set--The Tuning Coil--Adjusting the No. 2 Set.
IV. SIMPLE TELEGRAPH SENDING SETS
A Cheap Transmitting Set (No. 1)--The Spark Coil--The Battery--The Telegraph Key--The Spark Gap--The Tuning Coil--The High-tension Condenser--A Better Transmitting Set (No. 2)--The Alternating Current Transformer--The Wireless Key--The Spark Gap--The High-tension Condenser--The Oscillation Transformer--Connecting Up the Apparatus--For Direct Current--How to Adjust Your Transmitter. Tuning With a Hot Wire Ammeter--To Send Out a 200-meter Wave Length--The Use of the Aerial Switch--Aerial Switch for a Complete Sending and Receiving Set--Connecting in the Lightning Switch.
V. ELECTRICITY SIMPLY EXPLAINED
Electricity at Rest and in Motion--The Electric Current and its Circuit--Current and the Ampere--Resistance and the Ohm--What Ohm's Law Is--What the Watt and Kilowatt Are--Electromagnetic Induction--Mutual Induction--High-frequency Currents--Constants of an Oscillation Circuit--What Capacitance Is--What Inductance Is--What Resistance Is--The Effect of Capacitance.
VI. HOW THE TRANSMITTING AND RECEIVING SETS WORK
How Transmitting Set No. 1 Works--The Battery and Spark Coil Circuit--Changing the Primary Spark Coil Current Into Secondary Currents--What Ratio of Transformation Means--The Secondary Spark Coil Circuit--The Closed Oscillation Circuit--How Transmitting Set No. 2 Works--With Alternating Current--With Direct Current--The Rotary Spark Gap--The Quenched Spark Gap--The Oscillation Transformer--How Receiving Set No. 1 Works--How Receiving Set No. 2 Works.
VII. MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL TUNING
Damped and Sustained Mechanical Vibrations--Damped and Sustained Oscillations--About Mechanical Tuning--About Electric Tuning.
VIII. A SIMPLE VACUUM TUBE DETECTOR RECEIVING SET
Assembled Vacuum Tube Receiving Set--A Simple Vacuum Tube Receiving Set--The Vacuum Tube Detector--Three Electrode Vacuum Tube Detector--The Dry Cell and Storage Batteries--The Filament Rheostat--Assembling the Parts--Connecting Up the Parts--Adjusting the Vacuum Tube Detector Receiving Set.
IX. VACUUM TUBE AMPLIFIER RECEIVING SETS
A Grid Leak Amplifier Receiving Set. With Crystal Detector--The Fixed Resistance Unit, or Grid Leak--Assembling the Parts for a Crystal Detector Set--Connecting up the Parts for a Crystal Detector--A Grid Leak Amplifying Receiving Set With Vacuum Tube Detector--A Radio Frequency Transformer Amplifying Receiving Set--An Audio Frequency Transformer Amplifying Receiving Set--A Six Step Amplifier Receiving Set with a Loop Aerial--How to Prevent Howling.
X. REGENERATIVE AMPLIFICATION RECEIVING SETS
The Simplest Type of Regenerative Receiving Set--With Loose Coupled Tuning Coil--Connecting Up the Parts--An Efficient Regenerative Receiving Set. With Three Coil Loose Coupler--The A Battery Potentiometer--The Parts and How to Connect Them Up--A Regenerative Audio Frequency Amplifier--The Parts and How to Connect Them Up.
XI. SHORT WAVE REGENERATIVE RECEIVING SETS
A Short Wave Regenerative Receiver, with One Variometer and Three Variable Condensers--The Variocoupler--The Variometer--Connecting Up the Parts--Short Wave Regenerative Receiver with Two Variometers and Two Variable Condensers--The Parts and How to Connect Them Up.
XII. INTERMEDIATE AND LONG WAVE REGENERATIVE RECEIVING SETS
Intermediate Wave Receiving Sets--Intermediate Wave Set With Loading Coils--The Parts and How to Connect Them Up--An Intermediate Wave Set with Variocoupler Inductance Coils--The Parts and How to Connect Them Up--A Long Wave Receiving Set--The Parts and How to Connect Them Up.
XIII. HETERODYNE OR BEAT LONG WAVE TELEGRAPH RECEIVING SET
What the Heterodyne or Beat Method Is--The Autodyne or Self-heterodyne Long Wave Receiving Set--The Parts and Connections of an Autodyne or Self-heterodyne, Receiving Set--The Separate Heterodyne Long Wave Receiving Set--The Parts and Connections of a Separate Heterodyne Long Wave Receiving Set.
XIV. HEADPHONES AND LOUD SPEAKERS
Wireless Headphones--How a Bell Telephone Receiver is Made--How a Wireless Headphone is Made--About Resistance, Turns of Wire and Sensitivity of Headphones--The Impedance of Headphones--How the Headphones Work--About Loud Speakers--The Simplest Type of Loud Speaker--Another Simple Kind of Loud Speaker--A Third Kind of Simple Loud Speaker--A Super Loud Speaker.
XV. OPERATION OF VACUUM TUBE RECEPTORS
What is Meant by Ionization--How Electrons are Separated from Atoms--Action of the Two Electrode Vacuum Tube--How the Two Electrode Tube Acts as a Detector--How the Three Electrode Tube Acts as a Detector--How the Vacuum Tube Acts as an Amplifier--The Operation of a Simple Vacuum Tube Receiving Set--Operation of a Regenerative Vacuum Tube Receiving Set--Operation of Autodyne and Heterodyne Receiving Sets--The Autodyne, or Self-Heterodyne Receiving Set--The Separate Heterodyne Receiving Set.
XVI. CONTINUOUS WAVE TELEGRAPH TRANSMITTING SETS WITH DIRECT CURRENT
Sources of Current for Telegraph Transmitting Sets--An Experimental Continuous Wave Telegraph Transmitter--The Apparatus You Need--The Tuning Coil--The Condensers--The Aerial Ammeter--The Buzzer and Dry Cell--The Telegraph Key--The Vacuum Tube Oscillator--The Storage Battery--The Battery Rheostat--The Oscillation Choke Coil--Transmitter Connectors--The Panel Cutout--Connecting Up the Transmitting Apparatus--A 100-mile C. W. Telegraph Transmitter--The Apparatus You Need--The Tuning Coil--The Aerial Condenser--The Aerial Ammeter--The Grid and Blocking Condensers--The Key Circuit Apparatus--The 5 Watt Oscillator Vacuum Tube--The Storage Battery and Rheostat--The Filament Voltmeter--The Oscillation Choke Coil--The Motor-generator Set--The Panel Cut-out--The Protective Condenser--Connecting Up the Transmitting Apparatus--A 200-mile C. W. Telegraph Transmitter--A 500-mile C. W. Telegraph Transmitter--The Apparatus and Connections-- The 50-watt Vacuum Tube Oscillator--The Aerial Ammeter--The Grid Leak Resistance--The Oscillation Choke Coil--The Filament Rheostat--The Filament Storage Battery--The Protective Condenser--The Motor-generator--A 1000-mile C. W. Telegraph Transmitter.
XVII. CONTINUOUS WAVE TELEGRAPH TRANSMITTING SETS WITH ALTERNATING CURRENT
A 100-mile C. W. Telegraph Transmitting Set--The Apparatus Required--The Choke Coils--The Milli-ammeter--The A. C. Power Transformer--Connecting Up the Apparatus--A 200- to 500-mile C. W.
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