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- The Four Epochs of Woman's Life - 1/28 -


THE FOUR EPOCHS OF WOMAN'S LIFE

A Study in Hygiene

BY

ANNA M. GALBRAITH, M.D.

Author of "Hygiene and Physical Culture for Women"; Fellow of the New York Academy of Medicine ; Ex-President of the Alumnae Association, Woman's Medical College of Pennsylvania; Attending Physician, Neorological Department, New York Orthopedic Hospstal and Dispensary. _________________________________________________________________

WITH AN

INTRODUCTORY NOTE

by

JOHN H. MUSSER, M.D.

Late Professor of Clinical Medicine, University of Pennsylvania.

"As in a building Stone rests on stone, and wanting the foundation All would be wanting, so in human life Each action rests on the foregoing event That made it possible, but is forgotten And buried in the earth."

-- LONGFELLOW. _________________________________________________________________

INTRODUCTORY NOTE _________________

IT has been well said that the bulwarks of a nation are the mothers. Any contribution to the physical, and hence the mental, perfection of woman should be welcomed alike by her own sex, by the thoughtful citizen, by the political economist, and by the hygienist. Observation of the truths, expressed in a modest, pleasing, and conclusive manner, in the essay of Dr. Galbraith contribute to this end. These truths should be known by every woman, and I gladly commend the essay to their thoughtful consideration.

JOHN H. MUSSER, M.D.,

Late Professer of Clinical Medicine in the University of Pennsylvania. _________________________________________________________________

PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION. _________________

THE author takes this opportunity to thank the medical profession and the laity for the very cordial reception which has been tendered the first edition of this small volume.

The necessity for the use of technical expressions in a book written expressly for the laity must always be a matter of regret. And only those who have attempted to write a similar work can fully appreciate the truth of Herbert Spencer's remark, that "Nothing is so difficult as to write an elementary book on scientific subjects."

The author has added to this edition a section on "The Hygiene of Puberty," one on "Hemorrhage at the Menopause a Significant Symptom of Cancer," and one on "The Hygiene of the Menopause."

ANNA M. GALBRAITH.

15 WEST NINETY-FIRST STREET, NEW YORK. _________________________________________________________________

PREFACE. _________________

"Ignorance is the curse of God; Knowledge, the wings wherewith we fly to heaven."

-- "Henry VI."

PERFECT health is essential to perfect happiness. The greater the knowledge of the laws of nature, and the more closely these laws are lived up to, so much nearer "ideal" will be the health and happiness of the individual. Hence the necessity that these same laws should be as familiar to the adult man and woman as the alphabet. Further, with our present knowledge of the certain suffering, disease, and death that are bred by ignorance of all these subjects, it is little less than criminal to allow girls to reach the age of puberty without the slightest knowledge of the menstrual function; young women to be married in total ignorance of the ethics of married life; women to become mothers without any conception of the duties of motherhood; other women, as the time approaches, to live in dread apprehension of "the change of life;" and many women unnecessarily to succumb to disease at this time.

The masses of women have at last awakened to a sense of the awful penalties which they have paid for their ignorance of all those laws of nature which govern their physical being, and to feel keenly the necessity for instruction at least in the fundamental principles which underlie the various epochs of their lives; and it is in response to a widespread demand that this small volume has been written.

This is preeminently the day of preventive medicine; and the physician who can prevent the origin of disease is a greater benefactor than the one who can lessen the mortality or suffering after the disease has occurred.

ANNA M. GALBRAITH.

15 WEST NINETY-FIRST STREET, NEW YORK. _________________________________________________________________

CONTENTS _________________

INTRODUCTION

EDUCATION AS THE CONTROLLING FACTOR IN THE PHYSICAL LIFE OF WOMAN

Huxley's Definition of Education; the Correlation of Mind and Body; the Emotional Nature; Age for Going to School; the Effect of the Study of the Scientific Branches; Industrial Education _________________

PART I.-- MAIDENHOOD _________________________________________________________________

CHAPTER I.

PUBERTY

Sexual Development; Age of Puberty; Physical Changes at Puberty; First Onset of Menstruation; Psychic Changes at Puberty _________________________________________________________________

CHAPTER II.

HYGIENE OF PUBERTY

Home Life; Corsets; Shoes; Underwear; Nutrition; Diet; Water; Constipation; School Life; Spinal Curvature; Exercise; Walking; Running _________________________________________________________________

CHAPTER III.

ANATOMY OF THE FEMALE GENERATIVE ORGANS

The Vulva; the Hymen; Condition of the Hymen as a Proof of Virginity; the Bladder; Vagina; Uterus; Respiratory Movements of the Uterus; Fallopian Tubes; Ovaries _________________________________________________________________

CHAPTER IV.

PHYSIOLOGY OF THE FEMALE GENERATIVE ORGANS

Ovulation; Etiology of Menstruation; Uterine Nerve-supply; the Function of the Uterus; Stages of the Menstrual Cycle; Average Duration of the Menstrual Flow; Character of the Flow; Relation of Ovulation to Menstruation; the Menstrual Wave; Definition of Menstruation; Premonitory Symptoms of the Flow; Hygiene of Menstruation _________________________________________________________________

CHAPTER V.

THE ANOMALIES OF MENSTRUATION

Menorrhagia and Metrorrhagia; Dysmenorrhea; Amenorrhea; Leucorrhea; Pruritus Vulva _________________________________________________________________

CHAPTER VI.

THE MARRIAGE QUESTION

Herbert Spencer's Definition of Love; What Constitutes a Suitable Husband; Best Age for Marriage; Shall Cousins Marry? Contraindications to Marriage; Do Reformed Profligates Make Good Husbands? the Proper Length of Time for the Engagement; the Right Time of the Year to Marry; the Selection of the Wedding Day _________________

PART II.-- MARRIAGE _________________________________________________________________

CHAPTER VII.

THE ETHICS OF MARRIED LIFE

The Wedding Journey; the Ethics of Married Life; Shall Husband and Wife Occupy the Same Bed? the Consummation of Marriage; the Marital Relation; Times when Marital Relations Should be Suspended _________________________________________________________________

CHAPTER VIII.


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