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- History of the Philippine Islands Vols 1 and 2 - 1/74 -


MORGA'S PHILIPPINE ISLANDS

VOLUME I

Of this work five hundred copies are issued separately from "The Philippine Islands, 1493-1898," in fifty-five volumes.

HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS

From their discovery by Magellan in 1521 to the beginning of the XVII Century; with descriptions of Japan, China and adjacent countries, by

Dr. ANTONIO DE MORGA

Alcalde of Criminal Causes, in the Royal Audiencia of Nueva España, and Counsel for the Holy Office of the Inquisition

Completely translated into English, edited and annotated by

E. H. BLAIR and J. A. ROBERTSON With Facsimiles

[Separate publication from "The Philippine Islands, 1493-1898" in which series this appears as volumes 15 and 16.]

VOLUME I

Cleveland, Ohio The Arthur H. Clark Company 1907

COPYRIGHT 1907

THE ARTUR H. CLARK COMPANY

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

CONTENTS OF VOLUME I [xv of series]

Preface

Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas. Dr. Antonio de Morga; Mexico, 1609

Bibliographical Data

Appendix A: Expedition of Thomas Candish

Appendix B: Early years of the Dutch in the East Indies

ILLUSTRATIONS

View of city of Manila; photographic facsimile of engraving in Mallet's Description de l'univers (Paris, 1683), ii, p. 127, from copy in Library of Congress.

Title-page of Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas, by Dr. Antonio de Morga (Mexico, 1609); photographic facsimile from copy in Lenox Library.

Map showing first landing-place of Legazpi in the Philippines; photographic facsimile of original MS. map in the pilots' log-book of the voyage, in Archivo general de Indias, Sevilla.

View of Dutch vessels stationed in bay of Albay; from T. de Bry's Peregrinationes, 1st ed. (Amsterdame, 1602), tome xvi, no. iv. "Voyage faict entovr de l'univers par Sr. Olivier dv Nort"--p. 36; photographic facsimile, from copy in Boston Public Library.

Battle with Oliver van Noordt, near Manila, December 14, 1600; ut supra, p. 44.

Sinking of the Spanish flagship in battle with van Noordt; ut supra, p. 45.

Capture of van Noordt's admiral's ship; ut supra, p. 46.

PREFACE

In this volume is presented the first installment of Dr. Antonio de Morga's Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas. Events here described cover the years 1493-1603, and the history proper of the islands from 1565. Morga's work is important, as being written by a royal official and a keen observer and participator in affairs. Consequently he touches more on the practical everyday affairs of the islands, and in his narrative shows forth the policies of the government, its ideals, and its strengths and weaknesses. His book is written in the true historic spirit, and the various threads of the history of the islands are followed systematically. As being one of the first of published books regarding the Philippines, it has especial value. Political, social, and economic phases of life, both among the natives and their conquerors, are treated. The futility of the Spanish policy in making external expeditions, and its consequent neglect of internal affairs; the great Chinese question; the growth of trade; communication with Japan; missionary movements from the islands to surrounding countries; the jealous and envious opposition of the Portuguese; the dangers of sea-voyages: all these are portrayed vividly, yet soberly. Morga's position in the state allowed him access to many documents, and he seems to have been on general good terms with all classes, so that he readily gained a knowledge of facts. The character of Morga's work and his comprehensive treatment of the history, institutions, and products of the Philippines, render possible and desirable the copious annotations of this and the succeeding volume. These annotations are contributed in part by those of Lord Stanley's translation of Morga, and those of Rizal's reprint, while the Recopilación de leyes de Indias furnishes a considerable number of laws.

The book is preceded by the usual licenses and authorizations, followed by the author's dedication and introduction. In the latter he declares his purpose in writing his book to be that "the deeds achieved by our Spaniards in the discovery, conquest, and conversion of the Filipinas Islands--as well as various fortunes that they have had from time to time in the great kingdoms and among the pagan peoples surrounding the islands" may be known. The first seven chapters of the book treat of "discoveries, conquests, and other events ... until the death of Don Pedro de Acuña." The eighth chapter treats of the natives, government, conversion, and other details.

In rapid survey the author passes the line of demarcation of Alexander VI, and the voyages of Magalhães and Elcano, Loaisa, Villalobos, and others, down to the expedition of Legazpi. The salient points of this expedition are briefly outlined, his peaceful reception by Tupas and the natives, but their later hostility, because the Spaniards "seized their provisions," their defeat, the Spaniards' first settlement in Sebu, and the despatching of the advice-boat to Nueva España to discover the return passage, and inform the viceroy of the success of the expedition. From Sebu the conquest and settlement is extended to other islands, and the Spanish capital is finally moved to Manila. Events come rapidly. The conquest proceeds "by force of arms or by the efforts of the religious who have sown the good seeds of the gospel." Land is allotted to the conquerors, and towns are gradually founded, and the amount of the natives' tribute is fixed.

At Legazpi's death Guido de Lavezaris assumes his responsibilities by virtue of a royal despatch among Legazpi's papers, and continues the latter's plans. The pirate Limahon is defeated after having slain Martin de Goiti. Trade with China is established "and as a consequence has been growing ever since." The two towns of Betis and Lubao allotted by Lavezaris to himself are taken from him later by order of his successor, Dr. Francisco de Sande, but are restored to him by express order of the king, together with the office of master-of-camp.

Succeeding Lavezaris in 1575, Dr. Francisco de Sande continues "the pacification of the islands .... especially that of the province of Camarines." The town of Nueva Cáceres is founded, and Sande's partially effective campaign to Borneo, and its offshoot--that of Estevan Rodriguez de Figueroa to Mindanao--undertaken. The "San Juanillo" is despatched to Nueva España, "but it was lost at sea and never heard of again." Sande is relieved of his governorship by Gonzalo Ronquillo de Pefialosa, and after his residencia returns "to Nueva España as auditor of Mexico."

Chapter III details the events of Gonzalo Ronquillo de Pefialosa's administration and the interim of government of Diego Ronquillo. Events, with the greater stability constantly given the islands, follow more quickly. Gonzalo de Peñalosa, by an agreement with the king, is to take six hundred colonists--married and single--to the islands, in return for which he is to be governor for life. He establishes the town of Arevalo in Panay, builds the Chinese Parián, endeavors, although unsuccessfully, to discover a return passage to Nueva España, by the South Sea, and despatches "a ship to Peru with merchandise to trade for certain goods which he said that the Filipinas needed." He imposes the two per cent export duty on goods to Nueva España, and the three per cent duty on Chinese merchandise, and "although he was censured for having done this without his Majesty's orders" they "remained in force, and continued to be imposed thenceforward." The first expedition in aid of Tidore is sent for the conquest of the island of Ternate, but proves a failure. Cagayan is first pacified, and the town of Nueva Cáceres founded. Gabriel de Rivera, after an expedition to Borneo, is sent to Spain to consult the best interests of the islands. Domingo de Salazar receives his appointment as bishop, and is accompanied to the islands by Antonio Sedeño and Alonso Sanchez, the first Jesuits in the islands. In 1583 Gonzalo de Peñalosa dies, and is succeeded by his kinsman Diego Ronquillo. Shortly after occurs Manila's first disastrous fire, but the city is rebuilt, although with difficulty. In consequence of Rivera's trip to Spain, the royal Audiencia of Manila is established with Santiago de Vera as its president and governor of the islands.

In the fourth chapter are related the events of Santiago de Vera's administration, and the suppression of the Audiencia. Vera reaches the islands in 1584, whence shortly afterwards he despatches another expedition to the Malucos which also fails. The pacification continues, and the islands are freed from a rebellion and insurrection conspired between Manila and Pampanga chiefs. Fortifications are built and an artillery foundry established under the charge of natives. During this term Candish makes his memorable voyage, passing through some of the islands. Finally the Audiencia is suppressed, through the representations made by Alonso Sanchez, who is sent to Spain and Rome with authority to act for all classes of society. On his return he brings from Rome "many relics, bulls, and letters for the Filipinas." Through the influence of the Jesuit, Gomez Perez Dasmariñas


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