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- Wonders of Creation - 1/15 -


[Illustration: Mount Vesuvius]

[Illustration: Marvels of Creation]

WONDERS OF CREATION:

A DESCRIPTIVE ACCOUNT OF

VOLCANOES AND THEIR PHENOMENA.

"The mountains quake at Him and the hills melt and the earth is burned at His presence"--NAHUM 1:5

1872

PREFACE

Being intended for the Young, this work treats of Volcanoes only in a popular way. Scientific details and philosophical speculations are accordingly avoided. Nevertheless, a perusal of the following pages may so stimulate the curiosity of youthful minds, that some, on attaining to riper years and more mature understanding, may be inspired with a longing to inquire more deeply into this interesting subject. They may be stimulated to investigate, in a philosophical spirit, all the marvellous facts and phenomena connected with volcanic agency, and to speculate on their causes and modes of operation. Some also, on reaching their manhood, may be induced to ascend one or more of the nearer active volcanoes, and examine their phenomena for themselves. The facilities of travel are now so great, that a visit to Vesuvius or Etna is no longer beyond the limits of a holiday trip. Even the more remote Hecla with the playful Geysers may be reached within a reasonable time. Perhaps a very few, who are now scientific travellers in embryo, may call to remembrance what they may have read in these pages, when, many years hence, they may be climbing the cone of Cotopaxi, or peering into the crater of Kilauea.

Apart from these considerations, a perusal of this work may enable the young mind to form a more lively idea of the tremendous energy of the forces which are imprisoned in the bowels of the earth. Such a vivid conception will naturally lead to a higher appreciation of the wisdom and power of Him who guides the operation of those forces by his laws, and has set bounds to their activity which they cannot overpass.

CONTENTS.

CHAPTER I.

Volcanoes in general--Origin of the Name--General Aspect--Crater-- Cone--Subordinate Cones and Craters--Peak of Teneriffe--Lava- Streams--Cascades and Jets of Lava--Variations in its Consistency-- Pumice--Different Sorts of Lava--Obsidian--Olivine--Sulphur--Dust, Ashes, &c.--Volcanic Silk--Volcanic Islands--Volcanic Fishes--Hot Water, Mud, Vapours, &c.--Volcanic Storm--Explosions--Number of Volcanoes--King of the Volcanoes--Artificial Volcano

CHAPTER II.

Volcanoes of Iceland--Mount Hecla--Earliest Eruption--Great Eruption in 1845--Skaptar Yokul--Terrible Eruption in 1783--Rise and Disappearance of Nyoe--Katlugaia--The Geysers--A very hot Bath --Californian Geysers--Iceland-spar--Jan Mayen

CHAPTER III.

Mount Vesuvius--Origin of Name--Former Condition--Eruption of A.D. 79--Death of Pliny--Destruction of Pompeii and Herculaneum-- Appearance of the Mountain before and after Eruption--Formation of Monte Nuovo--Eruption of Boiling Water--Coloured Vapours--Cascade of Lava--Discovery of Remains of Herculaneum and Pompeii--The Buildings of Pompeii--Street of Tombs--Skeletons--Sundry Shops-- Ascents of Vesuvius--Crater--Temple of Serapis

CHAPTER IV.

Mount Etna--Its Appearance and Height--Ancient Eruptions--Pindar's Allusion--Virgil's Description--Subordinate Cones and Craters-- Caverns--Val de Bove--Formation of Monti Rossi--Eruption of 1852-- Whirlwinds--Lava Torrents--Cascades of Lava--Description of Crater --Empedocles--Enceladus--Craters of 1865--Cyclopean Isles--Homer's Legend--Volcanic Origin--Other Basaltic Groups

CHAPTER V.

Lipari Islands--Stromboli--Origin of Name--Position of Crater-- Description of Crater--New Volcanic Island named Julia--Phenomena preceding its Elevation--Description of Island and Crater--Its Disappearance--Rise of Islands at Santorin

CHAPTER VI.

Peak of Teneriffe--Its Crater--Eruption of Chahorra--Palma--Great Caldera--Lancerote--Great Eruption--Sudden Death--Fuego, Cape de Verde Islands--Cotopaxi--Its Appearance--Great Eruptive Force-- Tunguragua--Great Eruption of Mud and Water--Fish thrown out-- Quito--Its Overthrow--Pichinca--Humboldt's Ascent--Narrow Escape-- Antisana--Sangay--Rancagua--Chillan--Masaya

CHAPTER VII.

Jorullo--Great Monument--Jorullo's Estate--Interruption to his Quiet--His Estate Swells--Swallows Two Rivers--Throws up Ovens-- Becomes a Burning Mountain--Popocatepetl--Spanish Ascents--Orizaba --Muller's Ascent--Morne Garou--Pelee--La Soufriere

CHAPTER VIII.

Hawaii, Sandwich Islands--Crater of Kilauea--Its awful Aspect-- Fiery Lake and Islands--Jets of Lava--Depth of Crater and Surface of Lake--Bank of Sulphur--Curious Rainbow--Mouna Kaah and Mouna Loa --Eruption of the Latter in 1840--Recent Eruption--Great Jet and Torrent of Lava--Burning of the Forests--Great Whirlwinds-- Underground Explosions--Other Volcanoes in the Pacific

CHAPTER IX.

Atolls, or Coral Islands--Their strange Appearance--Their Connexion with Volcanoes--Their Mode of Formation--Antarctic Volcanoes- Diatomaceous Deposits

CHAPTER X.

Volcanoes of Java--Papandayang--Mountain Ingulfed--Great Destruction of Life and Property--Galoen gong--Destructive Eruption--Mount Merapia--Great Eruption, with Hurricane--Another, very destructive---Mud Volcano--Crater of Tankuban Prahu--Island of Sumbawa--Volcano of Tomboro--Terrific Eruption--Timor--A Volcano quenches itself--Cleaving of Mount Machian--Sangir--Destructive Eruption--Bourbon

CHAPTER XI.

Mud and Air Volcanoes--Luss--Macaluba--Taman--Korabetoff New Island in the Sea of Azof--Jokmali--Fires of Baku--Mud Volcano in Flank of Etna--Air Volcanoes of Turbaco, Cartagena, and Galera Zamba

CHAPTER XII.

New Zealand--Boiling Fountains and Lakes

CHAPTER XIII.

Underground Sounds--Quito--Rio Apure--Guanaxuato--Melida--Nakous

CHAPTER XIV.

Extinct Volcanoes--Auvergne--Vienne--Agde--Eyfel--Italy--Lacus Cimini--Grotto del Cane--Guevo Upas--Talaga Bodas--The Dead Sea

WONDERS OF CREATION:

VOLCANOES AND THEIR PHENOMENA.

CHAPTER I.

Volcanoes in general--Origin of the Name--General Aspect--Crater-- Cone--Subordinate Cones and Craters--Peak of Teneriffe--Lava- Streams--Cascades and Jets of Lava--Variations in its Consistency-- Pumice--Different Sorts of Lava--Obsidian--Olivine--Sulphur--Dust, Ashes, &c.--Volcanic Silk--Volcanic Islands--Volcanic Fishes--Hot Water, Mud, Vapours, &c--Volcanic storm--Explosions--Number of Volcanoes--King of the Volcanoes--Artificial Volcano.

Among the many wonderful works of God, none exhibits so much of awful grandeur as an active volcano. This name for a burning mountain was first applied to that which exists in the island anciently called Hiera, one of the Lipari group. It is derived from


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