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- England Under the Tudors - 1/90 -


ENGLAND UNDER THE TUDORS

BY ARTHUR D. INNES

SOMETIME SCHOLAR OF ORIEL COLLEGE, OXFORD

FOURTH EDITION

INTRODUCTORY NOTE

BY THE GENERAL EDITOR

In England, as in France and Germany, the main characteristic of the last twenty years, from the point of view of the student of history, has been that new material has been accumulating much faster than it can be assimilated or absorbed. The standard histories of the last generation need to be revised, or even to be put aside as obsolete, in the light of the new information that is coming in so rapidly and in such vast bulk. But the students and researchers of to-day have shown little enthusiasm as yet for the task of re-writing history on a large scale. We see issuing from the press hundreds of monographs, biographies, editions of old texts, selections from correspondence, or collections of statistics, mediaeval and modern. But the writers who (like the late Bishop Stubbs or Professor Samuel Gardiner) undertake to tell over again the history of a long period, with the aid of all the newly discovered material, are few indeed. It is comparatively easy to write a monograph on the life of an individual or a short episode of history. But the modern student, knowing well the mass of material that he has to collate, and dreading lest he may make a slip through overlooking some obscure or newly discovered source, dislikes to stir beyond the boundary of the subject, or the short period, on which he has made himself a specialist.

Meanwhile the general reading public continues to ask for standard histories, and discovers, only too often, that it can find nothing between school manuals at one end of the scale and minute monographs at the other. The series of which this volume forms a part is intended to do something towards meeting this demand. Historians will not sit down, as once they were wont, to write twenty-volume works in the style of Hume or Lingard, embracing a dozen centuries of annals. It is not to be desired that they should--the writer who is most satisfactory in dealing with Anglo-Saxon antiquities is not likely to be the one who will best discuss the antecedents of the Reformation, or the constitutional history of the Stuart period. But something can be done by judicious co-operation: it is not necessary that a genuine student should refuse to touch any subject that embraces an epoch longer than a score of years, nor need history be written as if it were an encyclopaedia, and cut up into small fragments dealt with by different hands.

It is hoped that the present series may strike the happy mean, by dividing up English History into periods that are neither too long to be dealt with by a single competent specialist, nor so short as to tempt the writer to indulge in that over-abundance of unimportant detail which repels the general reader. They are intended to give something more than a mere outline of our national annals, but they have little space for controversy or the discussion of sources, save in periods such as the dark age of the 5th and 6th centuries after Christ, where the criticism of authorities is absolutely necessary if we are to arrive at any sound conclusions as to the course of history. A number of maps are to be found at the end of each volume which, as it is hoped, will make it unnecessary for the reader to be continually referring to large historical atlases--tomes which (as we must confess with regret) are not to be discovered in every private library. Genealogies and chronological tables of kings are added where necessary.

C. OMAN

CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION

THE TUDOR PERIOD, 1485-1603 An era of Revolutions--The Intellectual Movement--The Reformation and Counter-Reformation--The New World--The Constitution--Nobility, Clergy, and Gentry--International Relations.

CHAPTER I

HENRY VII (i), 1485-1492-THE NEW DYNASTY 1485. Henry's Title to the Crown-- Measures to strengthen the Title--1486. Marriage--The King and his Advisers --Henry's enemies--1487. Lambert Simnel--The State of Europe--France and Brittany--1488. Henry intervenes cautiously--England and Spain--1489. Preparations for war with France--Spanish treaty of Medina del Campo--The Allies inert--1490. Object of Henry's Foreign Policy--1491. Apparent Defeat --1492. Henry's bellicose Attitude--Treaty of Etaples.

CHAPTER II

HENRY VII (ii), 1492-1499-PERKIN WARBECK Ireland; 1485--1487-1492. The Earl of Kildare--1491. Perkin Warbeck's Appearance--Riddle of his imposture-- 1492-5. Perkin and Margaret of Burgundy--Diplomatic Intrigues--Ireland: Poynings, 1494-6--1495. Survey of the Situation--Perkin attempts Invasion --Success of Henry's Diplomacy--1496. Perkin and the King of Scots--A Scottish Incursion--1497. The Cornish rising--Its suppression--Perkin's final effort and failure--The Scottish Truce--The End of Perkin Warbeck: 1497-9--1498. The situation.

CHAPTER III

HENRY VII (iii), 1498-1509-THE DYNASTY ASSURED Scotland and England-- Henry's Scottish Policy--France and Scotland--Relations in 1498--Marriage Negotiations; 1498-1503--Marriage of James IV. and Margaret, 1503--Spain and England; Marriage Negotiations, 1488-1499--France, 1499--Spain; Marriage Negotiations, 1499-1501--1501; the Spanish Marriage--1502. New Marriage Schemes--1504. The Papal Dispensation--The Earl of Suffolk; 1499-1505--1505. Henry's Position--Schemes for Re-marriage--1506: The Archduke Philip in England--Philip's Death--1507-8. Matrimonial Projects --The League of Cambrai--Wolsey--1509. Death of Henry.

CHAPTER IV

HENRY VII (iv), 1485-1509--ASPECTS OF THE REIGN 1485; Henry's Position --Studied Legality--Policy of Lenity--Repression of the Nobles--The Star-Chamber--Henry's Use of Parliament--Financial Exactions--Sources of Revenue--Henry's Economics--Trade Theories--Commercial Policy--The Netherlands Trade--The Hansa--The Navigation Acts--Voyages of Discovery-- The Rural Revolution--The Church--Henry and Rome--Learning and Letters-- Appreciation.

CHAPTER V

HENRY VIII (i), 1509-1527--EGO ET REX MEUS Europe in 1509--England's Position--The New King--Inauguration of the reign--Henry and the Powers-- 1512. Dorset's Expedition--Rise of Wolsey--1513. The French War--Scotland (1499-1513)--The Flodden Campaign--The Battle--Its Effect--Recovery of English Prestige--1514. Foreign Intrigues--The French Alliance and Marriage --1515. Francis I.--Marignano--1516-7. European changes--1518-9. Wolsey's Success--1519. Charles V.--The Imperial Election--1520. Wolsey's Triumph-- Rival Policies--Field of the Cloth of Gold--Wolsey's Aims--Charles V. and Francis I.--Scotland: 1513-1520--1520-1. Affairs Abroad--1521. Buckingham --Wolsey's Diplomacy--1522. A Papal Election--War with France--Scotland-- 1523. Progress of the War--Election of Clement VII.--1524. Wolsey's difficulties--Intrigues in Scotland--1525. Pavia--The Amicable Loan--A Diplomatic struggle--1526-7. Wolsey's success--A new Factor.

CHAPTER VI

HENRY VIII (ii), 1509-1532--BIRTH OF THE REFORMATION _The Reformation in England_--Its true Character--Religious Decadence--The Scholar- Reformers--Ecclesiastical Demoralisation--Monastic Corruption--The Proofs--Corruption of Doctrine--Evidence from Colet and More--Later Evidence--Dean Colet--His Sermon: 1512--Erasmus--The _Utopia_: 1516-- Exaggerated attacks--Clerical Privileges--Tentative Reforms--The Educational Movement--Wolsey and the Reformation--_The Lutheran Revolt_: 1517--Luther's Defiance--The Diet of Worms; 1521--The German Peasants' Revolt; 1524--Its Effect in England--1525. The Empire and the Papacy--The Sack of Rome, 1527--Diet of Augsburg, 1530-The Swiss Reformers; 1520-1530--English Heretics Abroad--Contrasted Aims.

CHAPTER VII

HENRY VIII (iii), 1527-1529--THE FALL OF WOLSEY "The King's Affair"--Story of the Marriage--Anne Boleyn--1527. The King Prepares--Theoretical Excuses--The Need of an Heir--The Plea of Invalidity--Conjunction of Incentives--The Orleans Betrothal--Conclusions--The first Plan--The second Plan--Knight's Mission--Its Failure--The Pope and the Cardinal--1528. Gardiner's Mission--Wolsey's Critical Position--Campeggio and Wolsey-- Henry's Attitude--1529. The Trial--The Storm Gathers--The Storm Breaks-- Wolsey's fall--1530. Wolsey's Death--His Achievement--Appreciation of Wolsey.

CHAPTER VIII

HENRY VIII (iv), 1529-1533--THE BREACH WITH ROME 1529. No Revolt Yet-- Growth of Anti-clericalism--Thomas Cranmer--Appeal to the Universities --The New Parliament--Thomas Cromwell--Pope, Clergy, and King--Double Campaign Opens--1530. Answer of Universities--Preoccupation of the Clergy--Menace of Praemunire--1531. "Only Supreme Head"--Proceedings in Parliament--1532. Parliament--Supplication against the Ordinaries-- Resistance of Clergy--"Submission of the Clergy"--Mortmain, Benefit of Clergy, and Annates--The Powers and the Divorce--The Turn of the Year-- 1533. The Crisis--Restraint of Appeals--Cranmer Archbishop--The Decisive Breach.

CHAPTER IX

HENRY VIII (v), 1533-1540--MALLEUS MONACHORUM 1533. Ecclesiastical Parties --Pope or King?--1534. Confirmatory Acts--The Pope's Last Word--The Nun of Kent--The Act of Succession--The Oath Refused--The "Bishop of Rome"-- Parliament--Treasons Act--1529-1534: The New Policy--Thomas Cromwell--1535. More and Fisher--Cromwell Vicar--General--The German Lutherans--Overtures-- Visitation of the Monasteries--1536. Suppression of Lesser Houses--The Evidence--The Black Book--The Consequent Commission--The Policy--Anne Boleyn Threatened--Her Condemnation and Death--The Succession--Punishment of Heresy--The Progressive Movement--The Ten Articles--The Lincolnshire Rising--The Pilgrimage of Grace--Aske Beguiled--1537. Suppression of the Rising--Turned to Account--Scotland, 1533-6--1536-7. Naval Measures--1537. An Heir--1538. Diplomatic Moves--The Exeter Conspiracy--1539. Cromwell Strikes--Menace of Invasion--The King and Lutheranism--The Six Articles-- Final Suppression of Monasteries--Royal Proclamations Act--Anne of Cleves-- 1540. The Marriage--Fall of Cromwell.

CHAPTER X


England Under the Tudors - 1/90

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