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- England Under the Tudors - 2/90 -


HENRY VIII (vi), 1540-1547--HENRY'S LAST YEARS 1540. Katharine Howard--The King his own Minister--England and the Powers--Scotland and England; 1541-- Cardinal Beton--1542--Solway Moss--1543. Henry's Scottish Policy--Alliance with Charles V.--French War--1544. Domestic Affairs--Intrigues in Scotland --Sack of Edinburgh--French War--Peace of Crepy--1545. Ancram Moor--A French Armada--1546. Peace concluded--1532-1549. _Europe_--Lutherans and the Papacy--Conference of Ratisbon-Council of Trent: first stages-- Death of Luther-Charles and the League of Schmalkald--The Jesuit Order-- Calvin--_England_: the Ecclesiastical Revolution--Progressives and Reactionaries--1543. The King's Book-1546. Surrey--1547. Death of Henry.

CHAPTER XI

HENRY VIII (vii), 1509-1547--ASPECTS OF HENRY'S REIGN _Ireland_: 1509-1520--Surrey in Ireland, 1520--Irish Policy, 1520-1534--Fitzgerald's Revolt--1535-1540: Lord Leonard Grey--1540: St. Leger--"King of Ireland"-- _England_: Wolsey's work--The Army--The Navy--The New World-- Absolutism--The Parliamentary Sanction--Depression of the Nobles-- Parliament and the Purse--Finance--The Land--Learning and Letters--The _Utopia_--Surrey and Wyatt--_Appreciation of Henry VIII._: Morals and Character--Abilities and Achievement--Dominant Personality-- Conclusions.

CHAPTER XII

EDWARD VI (i), 1547-1549--THE PROTECTOR SOMERSET 1547. The New Government-- Relations with France and Scotland--with Charles V.--Somerset's Scottish Policy--Pinkie--The Advanced Reformers--Benevolent Legislation-- Ecclesiastical Legislation--1548. Progress of the Reformation--Somerset's Ideas--The French in Scotland--The Augsburg Interim--Parliament--1549. A New Liturgy--The Treason of the Lord Admiral: 1547-9--1549--Troubles in the Provinces--The Western Rising--Ket's Insurrection--The Protector's Attitude--The Council attacks him--His Fall--Ireland: St. Leger and Bellingham.

CHAPTER XIII

EDWARD VI (ii), 1549-1553--THE DUDLEY ASCENDANCY 1549. Foreign Relations-- State of England--1550. Terms with France--Protestant zeal of Warwick-- Treasons Act--Protestant Fanaticism-1551. The Council and Charles V.--His Difficulties--Groups among the Reformers--Somerset--His final overthrow-- 1552. Execution of Somerset--Pacification of Passau--English Neutrality-- The Reformation: its Limits hitherto--Revision of the Liturgy-- Nonconformity--Parliament--1553. A New Parliament--Northumberland's Programme--Plot to change the Succession--Adhesion of King and Council-- Death of Edward VI.--Willoughby and Chancellor.

CHAPTER XIV

MARY (i), 1553-1555-THE SPANISH MARRIAGE The Marian Tragedies--1553. Proclamation of Queen Jane--The People support Mary--Collapse of the Plot-- Mary's Leniency--Cause of the Popular Loyalty--Problems: Marriage and the Reformation--Possible Claimants--Moderate Reaction--Proposed Spanish Match --Parliament: Repeal of Edward's Legislation--1554. Wyatt's Rebellion and the Lady Elizabeth--Subsequent Severities--The Marriage Treaty-Pole, Renard, and Gardiner--Public Tension--Parliament; Reconciliation with Rome --Reaction consummated, 1555.

CHAPTER XV

MARY (ii), 1555-1558-THE PERSECUTION Mary's early Policy--The Persecution-- Who was Responsible?--Comparison with other Persecutions--Some Characteristic Features--1555. The First Martyrs--Trial of Cranmer--Ridley and Latimer--Fate of Cranmer--His Record and Character--Policy of Philip-- Paul IV.--Mary disappointed of an Heir--A New Parliament--Gardiner's Death and Character--Mary's Difficulties--1556. The Dudley Conspiracy--Foreign Complications--1557. War with France--1558. Loss of Calais--National Depression--Mary's Death and Character.

CHAPTER XVI

ELIZABETH (i), 1558-1561-A PASSAGE PERILOUS

1558. Accession--Mary Stewart's Claim--Strength of Elizabeth's Position-- Sir William Cecil--Finance--Philip II. and Elizabeth's Marriage--The Religious Question--A Protestant Policy--1559. Parliament: Act of Supremacy--The Prayer-Book--France and Peace--State of Scotland--Arran and Elizabeth--The Archduke Charles--Wynter in the Forth--1560. Difficulties of France--Vacillations of Elizabeth--Siege of Leith--Treaty of Edinburgh-- Elizabeth's Methods--The Dudley Imbroglio--The Huguenots--The Pope--1561. Return of Mary to Scotland.

CHAPTER XVII

ELIZABETH (ii), 1561-1568-QUEENS AND SUITORS 1561. The Situation--Council of Trent--France; State of Parties--1561-8. France: Catholics and Huguenots --The Netherlands: Philip's Policy--Prelude to War--1561. The Queens' suitors--1562. Mary in Scotland--1562-3. Elizabeth and the Huguenots--The English Succession-1564. Darnley and Others--1565. The Darnley Marriage-- Mary and Murray--1566. The Murder of Rizzio--1567. Kirk o' Field--The Bothwell Marriage--Mary at Loch Leven--Murray Regent--1568. Langside, and the Flight to England--1562-8. Protestantism of Elizabeth's Government-- Religious Parties--1566-7. Parliament and the Queen's Marriage--The Queen and the Archduke.

CHAPTER XVIII

ELIZABETH (iii), 1568-1572--THE CATHOLIC CHALLENGE 1568. Mary in England--A Commission of Enquiry--Proceedings at York--Attitude of Philip--The Commission at Westminster--Comment on the Enquiry--Seizure of Spanish Treasure--1569. The Incident passed over--The Northern Rebellion--1570. Murder of Murray--The Bull of Deposition--The Anjou Match--1570-1. The Ridolfi Plot--1571. Parliament--Collapse of the Anjou Match--The Ridolfi Plot Develops--1572. Parliament and Mary Stewart--Lepanto--The Netherlands Revolt--The Alenšon Match--St. Bartholomew.

CHAPTER XIX

ELIZABETH (iv), 1572-1578--VARIUM ET MUTABILE Elizabeth's Diplomacy--The Queen's Subjects--Development of Protestantism--1572. Katharine de Medici --The Aim of Elizabeth--England and the Massacre--Spain seeks Amity--1573. A Spanish Alliance--Scotland: End of the Marian Party--The Netherlands, France, and Spain--The Netherlands, England, and Spain--1574. Amicable Relations of England and Spain--1575. A Deadlock--1576. Attitude of the Nation--The Queen evades War--Alenšon and the Huguenots--The Netherlands and Don John--Elizabeth's Attitude--1577. The Political Kaleidoscope--The Archduke Matthias--1578. Mendoza--Orange and Alenšon--Death of Don John-- NOTE: The Portuguese Succession.

CHAPTER XX

ELIZABETH (v), 1558-1578--IRISH AND ENGLISH 1549-58--1558. Shan O'Neill-- The Antrim Scots--1560-1. Shan and the Government--1562. Shan in England-- 1563-5. Shan's supremacy in Ulster recognised--1566. Sir Henry Sidney Deputy--Overthrow of O'Neill--Catholicism in Irish Politics--1568. The Colonising of Munster--1569. Insurrection in Munster--Ireland and Philip-- Experimental Presidencies--1573-4. Essex in Ulster--1576-8. Sidney's second Deputyship.

CHAPTER XXI

ELIZABETH (vi), 1578-1583--THE PAPAL ATTACK 1579. The Union of Utrecht-- 1578. The Matrimonial Juggle--Alenšon's wooing--1579. Popular Hostility to the Match--Loyalty to Elizabeth--Yea and Nay--The Papal Plan of Campaign-- 1580. Philip annexes Portugal--_Ireland_: 1579; the Desmond Rising-- 1580: Fire and Sword--Development of the Rebellion--Smerwick: and after-- _Scotland_: 1579-1581--_England_: 1580--The Jesuit Mission-- Walsingham at Work--1581. An Anti-papal Parliament--Alenšon redivivus--His visit to England--1582. Alenšon in the Netherlands--1583. Exit Alenšon--Scotland.

CHAPTER XXII

ELIZABETH (vii), 1583-1587-THE END OF QUEEN MARY 1583. Throgmorton's Conspiracy--Catholics abroad sanguine--Division in their Counsels--The Plot discovered--1584. Assassination of Orange--The "Association"--1585. Its Ratification--France: The Holy League--Elizabeth's agreement with the States--Drake's Cartagena Raid--Elizabeth's Intrigues-1586. Leicester in the Netherlands--The Trapping of Mary--Babington's Plot--Trial of the Queen of Scots--Elizabeth and Mary--1587. Execution of Mary.

CHAPTER XXIII

ELIZABETH (viii), 1558-1587-THE SEAMEN The New World--The English Marine before Elizabeth--The Royal Navy--Privateering--"Piracy"--Reprisal--The Explorers--Spain in America--John Hawkins, 1562-6--San Juan d'Ulloa, 1567-- Francis Drake--Darien Expedition, 1572--Oxenham, 1575--_Drake's Great Voyage_: 1577--Drake in the Pacific, 1578--in the North Pacific, 1579-- his Return, 1580--_Various Voyages_: 1576-1587--Raleigh--Humphrey Gilbert--Virginia.

CHAPTER XXIV

ELIZABETH (ix), 1587-1588-THE ARMADA 1587. Results of Mary's Death-- Attitude of Philip--Attitude of Elizabeth--The situation--Drake's Cadiz Expedition--Negotiations with Parma--Elizabeth's Diplomacy--French Affairs --Preparations for the Armada--1588. Plans of Campaign--Forces of the Antagonists--The New Tactics--Defective Arrangements--The Land Forces--May to July--The Fleets off Plymouth--The Fight off Portland--The Fight off the Isle of Wight--Effect on the Fleets--The Armada at Calais--The Battle off Gravelines--Flight and Ruin of the Armada.

CHAPTER XXV

ELIZABETH (x), 1588-1598-BRITANNIA VICTRIX After the Armada--A new Phase--Death of Leicester--France, 1588-9--England aggressive--Alternative Naval Policies--Don Antonio--Plan of the Lisbon Expedition--1589. The Expedition; Corunna and Peniche--The Lisbon Failure--Policies and Persons-- France, 1589-1593--1590. Death of Walsingham--The Year's Operations--1591. Grenville's Last Fight--France, 1590-3--Operations, 1592-4--Survey, 1589-94 --Spain and the English Catholics--Scottish Intrigues--Ireland: 1583-1592 --Tyrone, 1592-4--1595. Drake's Last Voyage--1596. The Cadiz Expedition-- Ireland--The Second Armada--1597. The Island Voyage--1598. Condition of Spain--Death of Philip--Death of Burghley: Appreciation.

CHAPTER XXVI

ELIZABETH (xi), 1598-1603--THE QUEEN'S LAST YEARS A new Generation--1598. Ireland--The Earl of Essex--1599. Essex in Ireland--His Downfall--Catholic Factions--Philip III.--1600--Ireland--Succession Intrigues--The End of Essex--Robert Cecil--1601. Ireland: Rebellion broken--1602. The Succession --Last Intrigues--1603. Death of Elizabeth.

CHAPTER XXVII

ELIZABETH (xii), 1558-1603--LITERATURE Birth of a National Literature-- _Prose_: before 1579--1579-1589--_Euphues_--Sidney--Hooker--


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