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- Darwiniana - 1/52 -


Produced by Dave Gowan

DARWINIANA

ESSAYS AND REVIEWS PERTAINING TO DARWINISM

BY ASA GRAY FISHER PROFESSOR OF NATURAL HISTORY (BOTANY) IN HARVARD UNIVERSITY

NEW YORK: 1876.

CONTENTS

DARWINIANA

PREFACE

ARTICLE I

THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES BY MEANS OF NATURAL SELECTION

Views and Definitions of Species--How Darwin's differs from that of Agassiz, and from the Common View--Variation, its Causes unknown.--Darwin's Genealogical Tree--Darwin and Agassiz agree in the Capital Facts--Embryology--Physical Connection of Species compatible with Intellectual Connection--How to prove Transmutation.--Known Extent of Variation--Cause of Likeness unknown--Artificial Selection.--Reversion--Interbreeding--Natural Selection.--Classification tentative.--What Darwin assumes.--Argument stated.--How Natural Selection works.--Where the Argument is weakest.--Objections--Morphology and Teleology harmonized.--Theory not atheistical.--Conceivable Modes of Relation of God to Nature

ARTICLE II

DESIGN VERSUS NECESSITY-- A DISCUSSION

How Design in Nature can be shown--Design not inconsistent with Indirect Attainment

ARTICLE III

NATURAL SELECTION NOT INCONSISTENT WITH NATURAL THEOLOGY

PART I.--Premonitions of Darwinism.--A Proper Subject for Speculation.--Summary of Facts and Ideas suggestive of Hypotheses of Derivation

Part II--Limitations of Theory conceded by Darwin.--What Darwinism explains.--Geological Argument strong in the Tertiary Period.-- Correspondence between Rank and Geological Succession--Difficulties in Classification.--Nature of Affinity.--No Absolute Distinction between Vegetable and Animal Kingdoms.--Individuality.--Gradation

PART III.--Theories contrasted.--Early Arguments against Darwinism.--Philosophical and Theological Objections--Theory may be theistic.--Final Cause not excluded.--Cause of Variation unknown.--Three Views of Efficient Cause compatible with Theism.--Agassiz's Objections of a Philosophical Nature.--Minor Objections.--Conclusion

ARTICLE IV

SPECIES AS TO VARIATION, GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION, AND SUCCESSION

Alphonse De Candolle's Study of the Oak Genus.--Variability of the Species.--Antiquity.--A Common Origin probable.--Dr. Falconer on the Common Origin of Elephants--Variation and Natural Selection distinguished.--Saporta on the Gradation between the Vegetable Forms of the Cretaceous and the Tertiary.--Hypothesis of Derivation more likely to be favored by Botanists than by Zoologists.--Views of Agassiz respecting the Origin, Dispersion, Variation, Characteristics, and Successive Creation of Species contrasted with those of De Candolle and others--Definition of Species--Whether its Essence is in the Likeness or in the Genealogical Connection of the Individuals composing a Species

ARTICLE V

SEQUOIA AND ITS HISTORY: THE RELATIONS OF NORTH AMERICAN TO NORTHEAST ASIAN AND TO TERTIARY VEGETATION

Age and Size of Sequoia.--Isolation.--Decadence.--Related Genera.-- Former Distribution.--Similarity between the Flora of Japan and that of the United States, especially on the Atlantic Side.--Former Glaciation as explaining the Present Dispersion of Species.--This confirmed by the Arctic Fossil Flora of the Tertiary Period.--Tertiary Flora derived from the Preceding Cretaceous.--Order and Adaptation in Organic Nature likened to a Flow.--Order implies an Ordainer

ARTICLE VI

THE ATTITUDE OF WORKING NATURALISTS TOWARD DARWINISM

General Tendency to Acceptance of the Derivative Hypothesis noted.--Lyell, Owen, Alphonse De Candolle, Bentham, Flower, Ailman.-- Dr. Dawson's "Story of the Earth and Man" examined.--Difference between Scientific Men and General Speculators or Amateurs in the Use of Hypotheses

ARTICLE VII

EVOLUTION AND THEOLOGY

Writings of Henslow, Hodges, and Le Conte examined.--Evolution and Design compatible.--The Admission of a System of Nature, with Fixed Laws, concedes in Principle all that the Doctrine of Evolution requires.--Hypotheses, Probabilities, and Surmises, not to be decried by Theologians, who use them, perhaps, more freely and loosely than Naturalists.--Theologians risk too much in the Defense of Untenable Outposts

ARTICLE VIII

"WHAT IS DARWINISM?"

Dr. Hodges Book with this Title criticised.--He declares that Darwinism is Atheism, yet its Founder a Theist.--Darwinism founded, however, upon Orthodox Conceptions, and opposed, not to Theism, but only to Intervention in Nature, while the Key-note of Dr. Hedge's System is Interference.--Views and Writings of St. Clair, Winchell, and Kingsley adverted to

ARTICLE IX

CHARLES DARWIN: SKETCH ACCOMPANYING A PORTRAIT IN "NATURE"

Darwin's Characteristics and Work as a Naturalist compared with those of Robert Brown.--His Illustration of the Principle that "Nature abhors Close Fertilization. "--His Impression upon Natural History exceeded only by Linnaeus.--His Service in restoring Teleology to Natural History

ARTICLE X

INSECTIVOROUS PLANTS

Classification marks Distinctions where Nature exhibits Gradations.-- Recovery of Forgotten Knowledge and History of what was known of Dionzea, Drosera, and Sarracenia.

ARTICLE XI

INSECTIVOROUS AND CLIMBING PLANTS

Review of Darwin's Two Works upon these Subjects--No Absolute Marks for distinguishing between Vegetables and Animals.--New observations upon the Sundews or Droseras.--Their Sensitiveness, Movements, Discernment of the Presence and Appropriation of Animal Matter.--Dionaea, and other Plants of the same Order.--Utricularia and Pinguicula.--Sarracenia and Nepenthes.--Climbing Plants; the Climbing effected through Sensitiveness or Response to External Impression and Automatic Movement.--Capacities inherent in Plants generally, and apparently of no Service to them, developed and utilized by those which climb.--Natural Selection not a Complete Explanation

ARTICLE XII

DURATION AND ORIGINATION OF RACE AND SPECIES

PART I.--Do Varieties in Plants wear out, or tend to wear out?--The Question considered in the Light of Facts, and in that of the Darwinian Theory.--Conclusion that Races sexually propagated need not die of Old


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