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- A Brief History of the United States - 1/72 -


[Illustration: GEORGE WASHINGTON AND HISTORICAL SCENES]

BARNES'S ONE-TERM HISTORY.

A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES

[Illustration: PLYMOUTH ROCK]

* * * * *

PREFACE.

* * * * *

The experience of all teachers testifies to the lamentable deficiency in historical knowledge among their pupils; not that children dislike the incidents and events of history, for, indeed, they prefer them to the improbable tales which now form the bulk of their reading, but because the books are "dry." Those which are interesting are apt to be lengthy, and the mind consequently becomes confused by the multitude of details, while the brief ones often contain merely the dry bones of fact, uninviting and unreal. An attractive book which can be mastered in a single term, is the necessity of our schools. The present work is an attempt to meet this want in American histories. In its preparation there has been an endeavor to develop the following principles:

1. To precede each Epoch by questions and a map, so that the pupil may become familiar with the location of the places named in the history he is about to study.

2. To select only the most important events for the body of the text, and then, by foot-notes, to give explanations, illustrations, minor events, anecdotes, &c.

3. To classify the events under general topics, which are given in distinct type at the beginning of each paragraph; thus impressing the leading idea on the mind of the pupil, enabling him to see at a glance the prominent points of the lesson, and especially adapting the book to that large and constantly increasing class of teachers, who require topical recitations.

4. To select, in the description of each battle, some characteristic in which it differs from all other battles--its key-note, by which it can be recollected; thus not only preventing a sameness, but giving to the pupil a point around which he may group information obtained from fuller descriptions and larger histories.

5. To give only leading dates, and, as far as possible, to associate them with each other, and thus assist the memory in their permanent retention; experience having proved the committing of many dates to be the most barren and profitless of all school attainments.

6. To give each campaign as a whole, rather than to mingle several by presenting the events in chronological order. Whenever, by the operations of one army being dependent on those of another, this plan might fail to show the inter-relation of events, to prevent such a result by so arranging the campaigns that the supporting event shall precede the supported one.

7. To give something of the philosophy of history, the causes and effects of events, and, in the case of great battles, the objects sought to be attained; thus leading pupils to a thoughtful study of history, and to an appreciation of the fact that events hinge upon each other.

8. To insert, in foot-notes, sketches of the more important personages, especially the Presidents, and thereby enable the student to form some estimate of their characters.

9. To use language, a clause or sentence of which cannot be selected or committed as an answer to a question, but such as, giving the idea vividly, will yet compel the pupil to express it in his own words.

10. To assign to each Epoch its fair proportion of space; not expanding the earlier ones at the expense of the later; but giving due prominence to the events nearer our own time, especially to the Civil War.

11. To write a National history by carefully avoiding all sectional or partisan views.

12. To give the new States the attention due to their importance by devoting space to each one as it is admitted into the Union, and becomes a feature in the grand national development.

13. To lead to a more independent use of the book, and the adoption of the topical mode of recitation and study, as far as possible, by placing the questions at the close of the work, rather than at the bottom of each page.

14. To furnish, under the title of Historical Recreations, a set of review questions which may serve to awaken an interest in the class and induce a more comprehensive study of the book.

Finally--this work is offered to American youth in the confident belief that as they study the wonderful history of their native land, they will learn to prize their birthright more highly, and treasure it more carefully. Their patriotism must be kindled when they come to see how slowly, yet how gloriously, this tree of liberty has grown, what storms have wrenched its boughs, what sweat of toil and blood has moistened its roots, what eager eyes have watched every out-springing bud, what brave hearts have defended it, loving it even unto death. A heritage thus sanctified by the heroism and devotion of the fathers can but elicit the choicest care and tenderest love of the sons.

[Illustration: MOUNT VERNON]

TABLE OF CONTENTS.

* * * * *

INTRODUCTION,

FIRST EPOCH.

EARLY DISCOVERIES AND SETTLEMENTS,

SECOND EPOCH.

DEVELOPMENT OF THE COLONIES,

THIRD EPOCH.

THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR,

FOURTH EPOCH.

DEVELOPMENT OF THE STATES,

FIFTH EPOCH.

THE CIVIL WAR,

SIXTH EPOCH.

RECONSTRUCTION AND PASSING EVENTS,

* * * * *

APPENDIX.

QUESTIONS FOR CLASS USE,

HISTORICAL RECREATIONS,

DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE,

CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES,

TABLES,

INDEX,

A SUGGESTION TO TEACHERS

[Entered according to Act of Congress, A. D. 1872, by A. S. Barnes & Co., in the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.]

* * * * *

The following method of using this work has been successfully employed by many teachers. At the commencement of the study let each pupil be required to draw an outline map of North America, at least 18 x 24 inches in size. This should contain only physical features, viz., coast-line, mountains, lakes, and rivers. If desired, they may be marked very faintly at first, and shaded and darkened when discovered in the progress of the history. As the pupils advance in the text let them mark on their maps, day by day, the places discovered, the settlements, battles, political divisions, etc., with their dates. They will thus see the country growing afresh under their hand and eye, and the geography and the history will be indissolubly linked. At the close of the term their maps will show what they have done, and each name, with its date, will recall the history which clusters around it.

Recitations and examinations may be conducted by having a map drawn upon the blackboard with colored crayons, and requiring the class to fill in the names and dates, describing the historical facts as they proceed. In turn, during review, the pupil should be able,


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