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- A Brief History of the United States - 40/72 -

States was encouraged, and in 1830 there were twenty thousand Americans in Texas. The jealousy of Mexico being excited, acts of oppression followed, and in 1835 the Texans were driven to declare their independence. After a year of severe fighting and alternating victories, Santa Anna was conquered.

[Footnote: Santa Anna, with four thousand men, having attacked the Alamo, a fort garrisoned by only one hundred and seventy-two men, every one of that gallant few died at his post except seven, who were killed while asking for quarter. Here David Crockett, the famous hunter, who had volunteered to fight with the Texans for their liberty, fell, pierced with wounds, but surrounded by the corpses of those whom he had cut down ere he was overpowered. In the battle of San Jacinto, Santa Anna, with fifteen hundred men, was defeated by eight hundred, under General Sam. Houston (See Barnes's Popular History of the United States, p. 445.)]

The next year (1837) Texas sought admission into the Union. In 1844 the question was revived. The last act of Tyler's administration was to sign a bill for its admission. This bill was ratified by a convention of the State, July 5th of the same year.

IOWA, the twenty-ninth State, was admitted to the Union December 28, 1846. Its name is of Indian origin, signifying "Drowsy ones." Julien Dubuque, a Canadian Frenchman, obtained, in 1788, a large tract of land, including the present site of Dubuque. He there built a fort and traded with the Indians till 1810. The first permanent settlement was made at Burlington in 1833, by emigrants from Illinois. The same year, Dubuque was founded. This Territory belonged to the Louisiana tract and partook of its fortunes. It was successively a part of Missouri, Michigan, and Wisconsin Territories, but was organized separately in 1838. It then included all of Minnesota west of the Mississippi River, but when admitted as a State was reduced to its present limits.

WISCONSIN, the thirtieth State, was admitted to the Union May 29, 1848. Its name is derived from its principal river, and signifies "The gathering of the waters." It was explored by French missionaries and traders as early as 1639. Green Bay was founded in 1745. This region was also a part of the Northwestern Territory. It was comprised in the Territory of Illinois, then of Michigan, and in 1836 became a separate Territory.

CALIFORNIA, the thirty-first State, was admitted to the Union September 9, 1850 (see p. 190). Sir Francis Drake, in 1579, sailed along its coast, naming it New Albion, and visited San Francisco harbor (see p. 35). In 1769, the Spaniards established the mission of San Diego (de-a'-go), and in 1776 (the year of the Declaration of Independence), one at San Francisco.

[Footnote: In 1835, a shanty owned by one Richardson was the only human habitation and the vast bay was a solitude The first survey of streets and town lots was in 1839 The principal trade was in exporting hides and that was small. In 1846 an American man of war entered the harbor and took possession in the name of the United States. The town was known as Yerba Buena (good herb) until 1847 when it was changed to its present name. About that time it had a population of four hundred and fifty nine. The discovery of gold in 1848 gave the city its first start toward its present distinction. Within eighteen months following December 1849, the city lost by fire $16,000,000 of property though its population did not exceed thirty thousand. Such however, was the enterprise of its citizens that these tremendous losses scarcely interrupted its growth or prosperity. Its magnificent harbor and its railroad communications give it an extensive commerce on the Pacific Coast.]


In 1803, they had eighteen missions with over fifteen thousand converts, and the entire government of the country was in the hands of the Franciscan monks. The Mexican revolution, in 1822, overthrew the Spanish power in California, and in a few years the Franciscans were stripped of their wealth and influence. In 1831, the white population did not exceed five thousand. From 1843 to 1846, many emigrants from the United States settled in California, and, under the leadership of Fremont and others, wrested the country from Mexico (see p. 188). By the treaty at the close of the Mexican war, Upper California was ceded to the United States. It embraced about 450,000 square miles, comprising what is now known as California, Nevada, Arizona, Utah, and parts of Colorado and New Mexico. (Maps of IVth and VIth Epochs.)

MINNESOTA, the thirty-second State, was admitted to the Union May 11, 1858. It is so called from the river of that name, and signifies "Cloudy water." In 1680, La Salle and Hennepin penetrated this region. Other travelers followed, and within the present century the whole country has been thoroughly explored. Fort Snelling was established in 1819. St. Paul was settled in 1846 by emigrants from the East. The Territory of Minnesota was organized in 1849, with the Missouri and White rivers for its western boundary, thus embracing nearly twice the area of the present State. At this time its population was less than five thousand, consisting of whites and half-breeds settled about the various missions and trading-posts. In 1851, the Sioux ceded a large tract of land to the United States. After this, the population increased so rapidly that in six years Minnesota applied for admission into the Union.

OREGON, the thirty-third State, was admitted to the Union February 14, 1859. It is said to derive its name from the Spanish _oregano_, wild marjoram, abundant on its coast. It constituted a part of the Louisiana purchase, though for a long time little was known of this portion of that vast territory. In 1792, Captain Gray, of Boston, entered the river to which he gave the name of his ship, the Columbia. On his return, he made such a flattering report that there was a general desire to know more of the country. In 1804, the year after the Louisiana purchase, Jefferson sent an exploring party, under the command of Captain Lewis and Lieutenant Clark, which followed the Missouri to its source and descended the Columbia to the Pacific. The history of their adventures is one of the most romantic of the century. An extensive fur-trade soon began. Fort Astoria was built in 1811 by the American Fur Company, of which John Jacob Astor was a prominent member. Hunters and trappers in the employ of American and British companies roamed over the whole region. Fort Vancouver was occupied by the Hudson Bay Company, a British organization, till 1860. In 1839, the first American emigration set toward this region. The danger of war which had seriously threatened its dawning prosperity was averted when the northwest boundary was settled by the treaty of 1846. In 1848, it was organized as a Territory, and included all the possessions of the United States west of the Rocky Mountains. In 1850, Congress granted three hundred and sixty acres to every man, and the same to his wife, on condition of residence on the land for four years. Eight thousand claims were made for farms. In 1853, Washington Territory was organized north of Columbia River. When Oregon was admitted as a State, it was reduced to its present limits.

KANSAS, the thirty-fourth State, was admitted to the Union January 29, 1861. The name is of Indian origin, and is said to mean "Smoky water." This region was also a part of the Louisiana purchase. After the States of Louisiana, Arkansas, Missouri, Iowa, and Minnesota had been carved from it, there was left a vast, unoccupied tract at the west, which was organized by the Kansas and Nebraska Act of 1854. The history of the strife which decided whether it should be slave or free has been narrated.

Summary of the History of the Fourth Epoch, arranged in Chronological Order.

1789. Washington inaugurated, April 30 1791. Vermont admitted to the Union, March 4 1792. Kentucky admitted to the Union, June 1 Discovery of Columbia River by Captain Gray, May 11 1793. Difficulties with Genet 1794. The Indians defeated by Wayne, August 20 Whisky insurrection 1795. Jay's treaty ratified, June 24 1796. Tennessee admitted to the Union, June 1 1797. John Adams inaugurated, March 4 1799. Washington died at Mount Vernon, December 14 1800. Capitol removed to Washington Treaty with France, September 30 1801. Thomas Jefferson inaugurated, March 4 War declared by United States against Tripoli, June 10 1802. Ohio admitted to the Union, November 29 1803. Louisiana purchased from France, April 30 Fleet sent against Tripoli 1804. Lieut. Decatur destroyed frigate Philadelphia, Feb. 15 Hamilton killed by Burr, July 11 1805. Treaty of peace with Tripoli, June 3 1807. The Chesapeake fired into by the Leopard, June 22 Embargo on American ships, December 22 Fulton first ascended the Hudson, September 14 1809. James Madison inaugurated, March 4 1811. Action between the President and the Little Belt, May 16 Battle of Tippecanoe, November 7 1812. Louisiana admitted to the Union, April 8 War declared against England, June 19 Hull invaded Canada, July 12 Mackinaw surrendered, July 17 Detroit surrendered, August 16 The Constitution captured the Guerriere, August 19 Battle of Queenstown, October 13 The Wasp captured the Frolic, October 13 1813. Battle of Frenchtown, January 22 Capture of York, April 27 Siege of Fort Meigs, May 1 Sackett's Harbor attacked, May 29 American frigate Chesapeake captured by the Shannon, June 1 1813. Battle of Fort Stephenson, Ohio, August 2, Massacre of Fort Mimms, August 30, Perry's victory on Lake Erie, September 10, Battle of the Thames, October 5, Battle of Chrysler's Field, November 11, 1814. Battle of Horse-shoe Bend (Tohopeka), March 27, Battle of Chippewa, July 5, Battle of Lundy's Lane, July 25, Washington captured by the British, August 24, Battle of Plattsburg and Lake Champlain, September 11, Bombardment of Fort McHenry, September 13, Hartford Convention, December 15, Treaty of Peace, December 24, 1815. Battle of New Orleans, January 8, War with Algiers,

A Brief History of the United States - 40/72

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