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- A Brief History of the United States - 70/72 -


the powers granted to the President. What authority has the President over the United States army and navy? State militia? The chief officers of the different executive departments? (See note, p. 151.) Reprieves and pardons? The making of treaties? Appointment of ambassadors? Judges of the Supreme Court, etc.? Filling vacancies?]

SECTION III.--He shall from time to time give to the Congress information of the state of the Union, and recommend to their consideration such measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient; he may, on extraordinary occasions, convene both houses, or either of them, and in case of disagreement between them with respect to the time of adjournment, he may adjourn them to such time as he shall think proper; he shall receive ambassadors and other public ministers; he shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed, and shall commission all the officers of the United States.

[Footnote: _Section 3_. Defines the duties of the President, Name these duties with regard (1) to Congress, (2) to ambassadors, and (3) to United States officers? (_Note_.--Washington and Adams in person read their messages to Congress; the present plan of sending the message by a private secretary was commenced by Jefferson.)]

SECTION IV.--The President, Vice-President, and all civil officers of the United States, shall be removed from office on impeachment for, and conviction of treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors.

[Footnote: _Section 4_. For what crimes and in what way may any United States officer be removed from office?]

ARTICLE III.--JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT.

SECTION I.--The judicial power of the United States shall be vested in one Supreme Court, and in such inferior courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish. The judges, both of the Supreme and inferior courts, shall hold their offices during good behavior, and shall, at stated times, receive for their services a compensation which shall not be diminished during their continuance in office.

[Footnote: ARTICLE III.--Section 1. In what is the judicial power of the United States vested? (_Note_.--The judicial power is that of interpreting and applying the laws.) How long do the judges hold office? Can their salary be changed during their term of office?]

[Footnote: Section 2 defines the _jurisdiction of the United States Courts_. Name the cases to which the judicial power of the United States extends. In what cases does the Supreme Court have original jurisdiction? Appellate jurisdiction? What is the law with regard to trial by jury? Where must such a trial be held? Where may a crime be committed "not within a state"? (_Notes_. --The Supreme Court consists of a chief justice and eight associate justices. The salary of the chief-justice is $10,500 and that of an associate $10,000 per annum. This court meets at Washington annually on the first Wednesday in December. A citizen of the District of Columbia, within the meaning of the Constitution as above, is not a citizen of a state. By original jurisdiction is meant the court in which the case begins; by appellate, is indicated a trial after an appeal from a lower court.)]

SECTION II.

CLAUSE 1. The judicial power shall extend to all cases, in law and equity, arising under this Constitution, the laws of the United States, and treaties made, or which shall be made, under their authority;--to all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers, and consuls;--to all cases of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction;--to controversies to which the United States shall be a party;--to controversies between two or more States;--between a State and citizens of another State;--between citizens of different States;--between citizens of the same State claiming lands under grants of different States, and between a State, or the citizens thereof, and foreign states, citizens, or subjects.

CLAUSE 2. In all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, and those in which a State shall be party, the Supreme Court shall have original jurisdiction. In all the other cases before mentioned, the Supreme Court shall have appellate jurisdiction, both as to law and fact, with such exceptions and under such regulations as the Congress shall make.

CLAUSE 3. The trial of all crimes, except in cases of impeachment, shall be by jury; and such trial shall be held in the State where the said crimes shall have been committed; but when not committed within any State, the trial shall be at such place or places as the Congress may by law have directed.

SECTION III.

CLAUSE 1. Treason against the United States shall consist only in levying war against them, or in adhering to their enemies, giving them aid and comfort.

[Footnote: Section 3. In what does treason consist? What proof is required? Who fixes the punishment? What limit is assigned?]

CLAUSE 2. No person shall be convicted of treason, unless on the testimony of two witnesses to the same overt act, or on confession in open court.

CLAUSE 3. The Congress shall have power to declare the punishment of treason, but no attainder of treason shall work corruption of blood, or forfeiture, except during the life of the person attainted.

ARTICLE IV.--General Provisions.

SECTION I.--Full faith and credit shall be given in each State to the public acts, records, and judicial proceedings of every other State. And the Congress may by general laws prescribe the manner in which such acts, records, and proceedings shall be proved, and the effect thereof.

[Footnote: ARTICLE IV.--Section 1. What is the law with regard to state records, judicial proceedings, etc.?]

SECTION II.

CLAUSE 1. The citizens of each State shall be entitled to all privileges and immunities of citizens in the several States.

CLAUSE 2. A person charged in any State with treason, felony, or other crime, who shall flee from justice, and be found in another State, shall, on demand of the executive authority of the State from which he fled, be delivered up, to be removed to the State having jurisdiction of the crime.

CLAUSE 3. No person held to service or labor in one State, under the laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in consequence of any law or regulation therein, be discharged from such service or labor, but shall be delivered up on claim of the party to whom such service or labor may be due.

[Footnote: Section 2. What privileges has the citizen of one state in all the others? Can a criminal or an apprentice escape by fleeing into another state? (Note.-Clause 3 originally included fugitive slaves, but that application was annulled by the XIIIth Amendment.)]

SECTION III.

CLAUSE 1. New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union; but no new State shall be formed or erected within the jurisdiction of any other State; nor any State be formed by the junction of two or more States, or parts of States, without the consent of the Legislatures of the States concerned as well as of the Congress.

[Footnote: State the law with regard to the formation and admission of new states. What power has Congress over the territory and propeity of the United States?]

CLAUSE 2. The Congress shall have power to dispose of and make all needful rules and regulations respecting the territory or other property belonging to the United States; and nothing in this Constitution shall be so construed as to prejudice any claims of the United States, or of any particular State.

SECTION IV.-The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a republican form of government, and shall protect each of them against invasion, and on application of the Legislature, or of the executive (when the Legislature cannot be convened) against domestic violence.

[Footnote: What must Congress guarantee to every state? When must Congress protect the states?]

ARTICLE V.--Power of Amendment.

The Congress, whenever two-thirds of both houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose amendments to this Constitution, or, on the application of the Legislatures of two-thirds of the several States, shall call a convention for proposing amendments, which, in either case, shall be valid to all intents and purposes, as part of this Constitution, when ratified by the Legislatures of three-fourths of the several States, or by conventions in three-fourths thereof, as the one or the other mode of ratification may be proposed by the Congress; provided that no amendment which may be made prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight shall in any manner affect the first and fourth clauses in the ninth section of the first article; and that no State, without its consent, shall be deprived of its equal suffrage in the Senate.

[Footnote: State the two ways in which amendments to the Constitution may be proposed. The two ways in which they may be ratified. What restriction in this article has now lost all force? What provision for the benefit of the smaller states is attached to this article?]


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