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- A Brief History of the United States - 72/72 -


ARTICLE VII.--In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury shall be otherwise re-examined in any court of the United States than according to the rules of common law.

[Footnote: ARTICLE VII. When is the right of jury trial guaranteed? How must a fact tried by a jury be re-examined?]

ARTICLE VIII.--Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.

[Footnote: ARTICLE VIII. What guarantee is given with regard to excessive bail or fine and unusual punishment?]

ARTICLE IX.--The enumeration in the Constitution of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.

[Footnote: ARTICLE IX. Does the enumeration of certain rights in the Constitution have any effect upon those not enumerated?]

ARTICLE X.--The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.

[Footnote: ARTICLE X. What declaration is made concerning the powers neither delegated to Congress nor forbidden the states?]

ARTICLE XI.--The judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States by citizens of another State, or by citizens or subjects of any foreign state.

[Footnote: ARTICLE XI. (_Note_.--This amendment was proposed at the first session of the Third Congress, 1794, and declared adopted in 1798) What restriction is placed on the judicial power of the United States? Can the citizens of one state bring a suit against another state?]

ARTICLE XII.--The electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by ballot for President and Vice-President, one of whom, at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same State with themselves; they shall name in their ballots the person voted for as President, and in distinct ballots the person voted for as Vice-President; and they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as Vice-President, and of the number of votes for each, which lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of the United States, directed to the president of the Senate;--the president of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates, and the votes shall then be counted;--the person having the greatest number of votes for President, shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed; and if no person have such majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers not exceeding three on the list of those voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by States, the representation from each State having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the States, and a majority of all the States shall be necessary to a choice. And if the House of Representatives shall not choose a President whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day of March next following, then the Vice-President shall act as President, as in the case of the death or other constitutional disability of the President. The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice-President, shall be the Vice-President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed; and if no person have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall choose the Vice-president; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall be eligible to that of Vice-President of the United States.

[Footnote: ARTICLE XII. (_Note_--This amendment was proposed at the first session of the Eighth Congress, 1803, and declared adopted in 1804. It grew up out of the contest In the House of Representatives at the time of Jefferson's election; he was not chosen until the 36th ballot.) Describe in full the mode of choosing the President by the electors. The Vice-President. State the essential qualifications of Vice-President. (See Art II, Sec. I, Clause 4.) In case there is no choice by the electors, how is the President elected? Describe the mode of election in the House. If a President should not be chosen by March 4, who would act as President?]

ARTICLE XIII.

[Footnote: ARTICLE XIII. (_Note_.-This amendment was proposed at the second session of the Thirty-eighth Congress, 1865, and declared adopted in 1865. It grew out of the Civil War. See p. 282. ) Repeat the amendment abolishing slavery and involuntary servitude in the United States.]

SECTION 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime, whereof the person shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.

SECTION 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

ARTICLE XIV.

SECTION 1.

[Footnote: ARTICLE XIV. (_Note_.-This amendment was adopted in 1868. See p. 284.) _Section_ 1. Who are citizens of the United States? What restrictions are laid upon the states with regard to abridging the rights of citizens?]

All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law, nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.

SECTION 2.

[Footnote: _Section_ 2. How are representatives apportioned among the several states? How does this amend Art. I, Sec 2, Clause 3?]

Representatives shall be appointed among the several States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice-President of the United States, representatives in Congress, the executive or judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State.

SECTION 3.

No person shall be a senator or representative in Congress, or elector of President or Vice-President, or hold any office, civil or military, under the United States, or under any State, who, having previously taken an oath as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any State Legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress may, by a vote of two-thirds of each house, remove such disability.

[Footnote: _Section_ 3. What persons are prohibited from holding any office under the United States? How may this disability be removed?]

SECTION 4. The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pension and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the United States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave, but all such debts, obligations, and claims shall be held illegal and void.

[Footnote: _Section 4_. Repeat the provision with regard to the validity of the public debt. With regard to any debt incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion.]

SECTION 5. Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.

ARTICLE XV

SECTION 1. The rights of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States, or by any State, on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.

SECTION 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

ARTICLE XV (_Note_--This amendment was adopted in 1870. See p. 288) Repeat the amendment granting universal suffrage.

[Illustration: WASHINGTON'S HEADQUARTERS AT NEWBURGH]


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