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- The American Woman's Home - 2/80 -


XIII.

_GOOD COOKING._

Bad cooking prevalent in America-Abundance of excellent material-- General management of food here very wasteful and extravagant--Five great departments of Cookery--_Bread_-What it should be, how to spoil and how to make it--Different modes of aeration--Baking--Evils of hot bread.--_Butter_-Contrast between the butter of America and of European countries-How to make good butter.--_Meat_-Generally used too newly killed--Lack of nicety in butcher's work--Economy of French butchery, curving, and trimming--Modes of cooking meats--The frying-pan--True way of using it--The French art of making delicious soups and stews--_Vegetables_--Their number and variety in America--The potato--How to cook it, a simple yet difficult operation--Roasted, boiled, fried.--_Tea_--Warm table drinks generally--Coffee--Tea-- Chocolate.--_Confectionery_--Ornamental cookery--Pastry, ices, jellies.

XIV.

_EARLY RISING._ A virtue peculiarly American and democratic--In aristocratic countries, labor considered degrading--The hours of sunlight generally devoted to labor by the working classes and to sleep by the indolent and wealthy--Sunlight necessary to health and growth whether of vegetables or animals--Particularly needful for the sick--Substitution of artificial light and heat, by night, a great waste of money--Eight hours' sleep enough--Excessive sleep debilitating--Early rising necessary to a well-regulated family, to the amount of work to be done, to the community, to schools, and to all classes in American society.

XV.

_DOMESTIC MANNERS._

Good manners the expression of benevolence in personal intercourse--Serious defects in manners of the Americans-Causes of abrupt manners to be found in American life--Want of clear discrimination between men--Necessity for distinctions of superiority: and subordination--Importance that young mothers should seriously endeavor to remedy this defect, while educating their children--Democratic principal of equal rights to be applied, not to our own interests but to those of others--The same courtesy to be extended to all classes--Necessary distinctions arising from mutual relations to be observed--The strong to defer to the weak--Precedence yielded by men to women in America--Good manners must be cultivated in early life--Mutual relations of husband and wife--Parents and children--The rearing of children to courtesy--De Tocqueville on American manners.

XVI.

_GOOD TEMPER IN THE HOUSEKEEPER._

Easier for a household under the guidance of an equable temper in the mistress---Dissatisfied looks and sharp tones destroy the comfort of system, neatness, and economy--Considerations to aid the housekeeper--Importance and dignity of her duties--Difficulties to be overcome--Good policy to calculate beforehand upon the derangement of well-arranged plans--Object of housekeeping, the comfort and well-being of the family--The end should not be sacrificed to secure the means--Possible to refrain from angry tones--Mild speech most effective--Exemplification--Allowances to be made for servants and children--Power of religion to impart dignity and importance to the ordinary and petty details of domestic life.

XVII.

_HABITS OF SYSTEM AND ORDER._

Relative importance and difficulty of the duties a woman is called to perform--Her duties not trivial--A habit of system and order necessary--Right apportionment of time--General principles-- Christianity to be the foundation--Intellectual and social interests to be preferred to gratification of taste or appetite--Neglect of health a sin in the sight of God--Regular season of rest appointed by the Creator--Divisions of time--Systematic arrangement of house articles and other conveniences--Regular employment for each member of a family--Children--Family work--Forming habits of system--Early rising a very great aid--Due apportionment of time to the several duties.

XVIII.

_GIVING IN CHARITY._

No point of duty more difficult to fix by rule than charity--First consideration--Object for which we are placed in this world--Self- denying Benevolence.--Second consideration--Natural principles not to be exterminated, but regulated and controlled.--Third consideration--Superfluities sometimes proper, and sometimes not--Fourth consideration--No rule of duty right for one and not for all--The opposite of this principle tested--Some use of superfluities necessary--Plan for keeping an account of necessities and superfluities--Untoward results of our actions do not always prove that we deserve blame--General principles to guide in deciding upon objects of charity--Who are our neighbors--The most in need to be first relieved--Not much need of charity for physical wants in this country--Associated charities--Indiscriminate charity--Impropriety of judging the charities of others.

XIX.

_ECONOMY OF TIME AND EXPENSES_

Economy, value, and right apportionment of time--Laws appointed by God for the Jews--Christianity removes the restrictions laid on the Jews, but demands all our time to be devoted to our own best interests and the good of our fellow-men--Enjoyment connected with every duty--Various modes of economizing time--System and order--Uniting several objects in one employment--Odd intervals of time--Aiding others in economizing time--Economy in expenses--Contradictory notions--General principles in which all agree--Knowledge of income and expenses--Evils of want of system and forethought--Young ladies should early learn to be systematic and economical.

XX.

_HEALTH OF MIND._

Intimate connection between the body and mind--Brain excited by improper stimulants taken into the stomach--Mental faculties then affected--Causes of mental disease--Want of oxygenized blood--Fresh air absolutely necessary--Excessive exercise of the intellect or feelings--Such attention to religion as prevents the performance of other duties, wrong--Unusual precocity in children usually the result of a diseased brain--Idiocy often the result, or the precocious child sinks below the average of mankind--This evil yet prevalent in colleges and other seminaries--A medical man necessary in every seminary--Some pupils always needing restraint in regard to study--A third cause of mental disease, the want of appropriate exercise of the various faculties of the mind--Extract from Dr. Combe--Beneficial results of active intellectual employments--Indications of a diseased mind.

XXI.

_THE CARE OF INFANTS._

Herbert Spencer on the treatment of offspring--Absurdity of undertaking to rear children without any knowledge of how to do it--Foolish management of parents generally the cause of evils ascribed to Providence--Errors of management during the first two years--Food of child and of mother--Warning as to use of too much medicine--Fresh air-- Care of the skin--Dress--Sleep--Bathing--Change of air--Habits--Dangers of the teething period--Constipation--Diarrhea--Teething--How to relieve its dangers--Feverishness--Use of water.

XXII.

_THE MANAGEMENT OF YOUNG CHILDREN._

Physical education of children--Animal diet to be avoided for the very young--Result of treatment at Albany Orphan Asylum--Good ventilation of nurseries and schools--Moral training to consist in forming _habits_ of submission, self-denial, and benevolence-General suggestions--Extremes of sternness and laxity to be avoided--Appreciation of childish desires and feelings--Sympathy--Partaking in games and employments--Inculcation of principles preferable to multiplication of commands--Rewards rather than penalties--Severe tones of voice--Children to be kept happy--Sensitive children--Self-denial--Deceit and honesty--Immodesty and delicacy--Dreadful penalties consequent upon youthful impurities--Religious training.

XXIII.

_DOMESTIC AMUSEMENTS AND SOCIAL DUTIES._

Children need more amusement than older persons--Its object, to afford rest and recreation to the mind and body--Example of Christ--No amusements to be introduced that will tempt the weak or over-excite the young--Puritan customs--Work followed by play--Dramatic exercises, dancing, and festivity wholesomely enjoyed--The nine o'clock bell--The drama and the dance--Card-playing--Novel-reading--Taste for solid reading--Cultivation of fruits and flowers--Music--Collecting of shells, plants, and minerals--Games--Exercise of mechanical skill for boys--Sewing, cutting, and fitting--General suggestions--Social and domestic duties--Family attachments--Hospitality.

XXIV.

_CARE OF THE AGED._

Preservation of the aged, designed to give opportunity for self-denial and loving care--Patience, sympathy, and labor for them to be regarded as privileges in a family--The young should respect and minister unto the aged--Treating them as valued members of the family--Engaging them in domestic Games and sports--Reading aloud-Courteous attention to their opinions--Assistance in retarding decay of faculties by helping them to exercise--Keeping up interest of the infirm in domestic affairs--Great care to preserve animal heat--Ingratitude to the aged, its baseness--Chinese regard for old age.

XXV.

_THE CARE OF SERVANTS._

Origin of the Yankee term "help"--Days of good health and intelligent house-keeping--Growth of wealth tends to multiply hired service-- American young women should be trained in housekeeping for the guidance of ignorant and shiftless servants--Difficulty of teaching servants--Reaction of society in favor of women's intellectuality, in


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