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- History of Modern Europe 1792-1878 - 2/202 -


unrest appears in the work, which I have valued for the sake of the mental discipline which it demanded. With quieter times the third volume will, I trust, advance more rapidly.

LONDON, October, 1886.

NOTE.--The third volume was published in 1889.

CONTENTS.

CHAPTER I.

FRANCE AND GERMANY AT THE OUTBREAK OF THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR.

Outbreak of the Revolutionary War in 1792--Its immediate causes-- Declaration of Pillnitz made and withdrawn--Agitation of the Priests and Emigrants--War Policy of the Gironde--Provocations offered to France by the Powers--State of Central Europe in 1792--The Holy Roman Empire--Austria-- Rule of the Hapsburgs--The Reforms of Maria Theresa and Joseph II.--Policy of Leopold II.--Government and Foreign Policy of Francis II.--Prussia-- Government of Frederick William II.--Social Condition of Prussia--Secondary States of Germany--Ecclesiastical States--Free Cities--Knights--Weakness of Germany

CHAPTER II.

THE WAR, DOWN TO THE TREATIES OF BASLE AND THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE DIRECTORY.

French and Austrian Armies on the Flemish Frontier--Prussia enters the War--Brunswick invades France--His Proclamation--Insurrection of Aug. 10 at Paris--Massacres of September--Character of the War--Brunswick, checked at Valmy, retreats--The War becomes a Crusade of France--Neighbours of France--Custine enters Mainz--Dumouriez conquers the Austrian Netherlands-- Nice and Savoy annexed--Decree of the Convention against all Governments-- Execution of Louis XVI.--War with England, followed by war with the Mediterranean States--Condition of England--English Parties, how affected by the Revolution--The Gironde and the Mountain--Austria recovers the Netherlands--The Allies invade France--La Vendée--Revolutionary System of 1793--Errors of the Allies--New French Commanders and Democratic Army--Victories of Jourdan, Hoche, and Pichegru--Prussia withdrawing from the War--Polish Affairs--Austria abandons the Netherlands--Treaties of Basle--France in 1795--Insurrection of 13 Vendémiaire--Constitution of 1795--The Directory--Effect of the Revolution on the Spirit of Europe up to 1795

CHAPTER III.

ITALIAN CAMPAIGNS: TREATY OF CAMPO FORMIO.

Triple attack on Austria--Moreau, Jourdan--Bonaparte in Italy--Condition of the Italian States--Professions and real intentions of Bonaparte and the Directory--Battle of Montenotte--Armistice with Sardinia--Campaign in Lombardy--Treatment of the Pope, Naples, Tuscany--Siege of Mantua-- Castiglione--Moreau and Jourdan in Germany--Their retreat--Secret Treaty with Prussia--Negotiations with England--Cispadane Republic--Rise of the idea of Italian Independence--Battles of Arcola and Rivoli--Peace with the Pope at Tolentino--Venice--Preliminaries of Leoben--The French in Venice--The French take the Ionian Islands and give Venice to Austria--Genoa--Coup d'état of 17 Fructidor in Paris--Treaty of Campo Formio--Victories of England at Sea--Bonaparte's project against Egypt

CHAPTER IV.

FROM THE CONGRESS OF RASTADT TO THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE CONSULATE.

Congress of Rastadt--The Rhenish Provinces ceded--Ecclesiastical States of Germany suppressed--French Intervention in Switzerland--Helvetic Republic--The French invade the Papal States--Roman Republic--Expedition to Egypt--Battle of the Nile--Coalition of 1798--Ferdinand of Naples enters Rome--Mack's defeats--French enter Naples--Parthenopean Republic--War with Austria and Russia--Battle of Stockach--Murder of the French Envoys at Rastadt--Campaign in Lombardy--Reign of Terror at Naples--Austrian designs upon Italy--Suvaroff and the Austrians--Campaign in Switzerland--Campaign in Holland--Bonaparte returns from Egypt--Coup d'état of 18 Brumaire-- Constitution of 1799--System of Bonaparte in France--Its effect on the influence of France abroad

CHAPTER V.

FROM MARENGO TO THE RUPTURE OF THE PEACE OF AMIENS.

Overtures of Bonaparte to Austria and England--The War continues--Massena besieged in Genoa--Moreau invades Southern Germany--Bonaparte crosses the St. Bernard, and descends in the rear of the Austrians--Battle of Marengo--Austrians retire behind the Mincio--Treaty between England and Austria--Austria continues the War--Battle of Hohenlinden--Peace of Lunéville--War between England and the Northern Maritime League--Battle of Copenhagen--Murder of Paul--End of the Maritime War--English Army enters Egypt--French defeated at Alexandria--They capitulate at Cairo and Alexandria--Preliminaries of Peace between England and France signed at London, followed by Peace of Amiens--Pitt's Irish Policy and his retirement--Debates on the Peace--Aggressions of Bonaparte during the Continental Peace--Holland, Italy, Switzerland--Settlement of Germany under French and Russian influence--Suppression of Ecclesiastical States and Free Cities--Its effects--Stein--France under the Consulate--The Civil Code--The Concordat

CHAPTER VI.

THE EMPIRE, TO THE PEACE OF PRESBURG.

England claims Malta--War renewed--Bonaparte occupies Hanover, and blockades the Elbe--Remonstrances of Prussia--Cadoudal's Plot--Murder of the Duke of Enghien--Napoleon Emperor--Coalition of 1805--Prussia holds aloof--State of Austria--Failure of Napoleon's Attempt to gain Naval Superiority in the Channel--Campaign in Western Germany-- Capitulation of Ulm--Trafalgar--Treaty of Potsdam between Prussia and the Allies--The French enter Vienna--Haugwitz sent to Napoleon with Prussian Ultimatum--Battle of Austerlitz--Haugwitz signs a Treaty of Alliance with Napoleon--Peace--Treaty of Presburg--End of the Holy Roman Empire--Naples given to Joseph Bonaparte--Battle of Maida--The Napoleonic Empire and Dynasty--Federation of the Rhine--State of Germany--Possibility of maintaining the Empire of 1806

CHAPTER VII.

DEATH OF PITT, TO THE PEACE OF TILSIT.

Death of Pitt--Ministry of Fox and Grenville--Napoleon forces Prussia into war with England, and then offers Hanover to England--Prussia resolves on war with Napoleon--State of Prussia--Decline of the Army--Southern Germany with Napoleon--Austria neutral--England and Russia about to help Prussia, but not immediately--Campaign of 1806--Battles of Jena and Auerstädt--Ruin of the Prussian Army--Capitulation of Fortresses--Demands of Napoleon--The War continues--Berlin Decree--Exclusion of English goods from the Continent--Russia enters the war--Campaign in Poland and East Prussia--Eylau--Treaty of Bartenstein--Friedland--Interview at Tilsit--Alliance of Napoleon and Alexander--Secret Articles--English expedition to Denmark--The French enter Portugal--Prussia after the Peace of Tilsit--Stein's Edict of Emancipation--The Prussian Peasant--Reform of the Prussian Army, and creation of Municipalities--Stein's other projects of Reform, which are not carried out

CHAPTER VIII.

SPAIN, TO THE FALL OF SARAGOSSA.

Spain in 1806--Napoleon uses the quarrel between Ferdinand and Godoy--He affects to be Ferdinand's Protector--Dupont's Army enters Spain--Murat in Spain--Charles abdicates--Ferdinand King--Savary brings Ferdinand to Bayonne--Napoleon makes both Charles and Ferdinand resign--Spirit of the Spanish Nation--Contrast with Germany--Rising of all Spain--The Notables at Bayonne--Campaign of 1808--Capitulation of Baylen--Wellesley lands in Portugal--Vimieiro--Convention of Cintra--Effect of the Spanish Rising on Europe--War Party in Prussia--Napoleon and Alexander at Erfurt--Stein resigns, and is proscribed--Napoleon in Spain--Spanish Misgovernment-- Campaign on the Ebro--Campaign of Sir John Moore--Corunna--Napoleon leaves Spain--Siege of Saragossa--Successes of the French

CHAPTER IX.

WAR OF 1809: THE NAPOLEONIC EMPIRE--SPAIN, TO THE BATTLE OF SALAMANCA.

Austria preparing for war--The war to be one on behalf of the German Nation--Patriotic movement in Prussia--Expected Insurrection in North Germany--Plans of Campaign--Austrian Manifesto to the Germans--Rising of the Tyrolese--Defeats of the Archduke Charles in Bavaria--French in Vienna--Attempts of Dörnberg and Schill--Battle of Aspern--Second passage of the Danube--Battle of Wagram--Armistice of Znaim--Austria waiting for Events--Wellesley in Spain--He gains the Battle of Talavera, but retreats--Expedition against Antwerp fails--Austria makes Peace--Treaty of Vienna--Real Effects of the War of 1809--Austria after 1809--Metternich-- Marriage of Napoleon with Marie Louise--Severance of Napoleon and Alexander--Napoleon annexes the Papal States, Holland, Le Valais, and the North German Coast--The Napoleonic Empire: its benefits and wrongs--The Czar withdraws from Napoleon's Commercial System--War with Russia imminent--Wellington in Portugal; Lines of Torres Vedras; Massena's Campaign of 1810, and retreat--Soult in Andalusia--Wellington's Campaign of 1811--Capture of Ciudad Rodrigo and Badajoz--Salamanca

CHAPTER X.

RUSSIAN CAMPAIGN, TO THE TREATY OF KALISCH.

War approaching between France and Russia--Policy of Prussia--Hardenberg's Ministry--Prussia forced into Alliance with Napoleon--Austrian Alliance-- Napoleon's Preparations--He enters Russia--Alexander and Bernadotte--Plan of Russians to fight a battle at Drissa frustrated--They retreat on Witepsk--Sufferings of the French--French enter Smolensko--Battle of Borodino--Evacuation of Moscow--Moscow fired--The Retreat from Moscow-- French at Smolensko--Advance of Russian Armies from North and South--Battle of Krasnoi--Passage of the Beresina--The French reach the Niemen--York's Convention with the Russians--The Czar and Stein--Russian Army enters Prussia--Stein raises East Prussia--Treaty of Kalisch--Prussia declares War--Enthusiasm of the Nation--Idea of German Unity--The Landwehr

CHAPTER XI.

WAR OF LIBERATION, TO THE PEACE OF PARIS.

The War of Liberation--Blücher crosses the Elbe--Battle of Lützen--The Allies retreat to Silesia--Battle of Bautzen--Armistice--Napoleon intends to intimidate Austria--Mistaken as to the Forces of Austria--Metternich's Policy--Treaty of Reichenbach--Austria offers its Mediation--Congress of Prague--Austria enters the War--Armies and Plans of Napoleon and the


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