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- History of Modern Europe 1792-1878 - 4/202 -
enter Rome--The Restored Pontifical Government--Fall of Venice--Ferdinand reconquers Sicily--Germany--The National Assembly at Frankfort--The Armistice of Malmö--Berlin from April to September--The Prussian Army--Last Days of the Prussian Parliament--Prussian Constitution granted by Edict--The German National Assembly and Austria--Frederick William IV. elected Emperor--He refuses the Crown--End of the National Assembly-- Prussia attempts to form a separate Union--The Union Parliament at Erfurt--Action of Austria--Hesse-Cassel--The Diet of Frankfort restored--Olmütz--Schleswig-Holstein--Germany after 1849--Austria after 1851--France after 1848--Louis Napoleon--The October Message--Law Limiting the Franchise--Louis Napoleon and the Army--Proposed Revision of the Constitution--The Coup d'Etat--Napoleon III. Emperor
THE CRIMEAN WAR.
England and France in 1851--Russia under Nicholas--The Hungarian Refugees--Dispute between France and Russia on the Holy Places--Nicholas and the British Ambassador--Lord Stratford de Redcliffe--Menschikoff's Mission--Russian troops enter the Danubian Principalities--Lord Aberdeen's Cabinet--Movements of the Fleets--The Vienna Note--The Fleets pass the Dardanelles--Turkish Squadron destroyed at Sinope--Declaration of War--Policy of Austria--Policy of Prussia--The Western Powers and the European Concert--Siege of Silistria--The Principalities evacuated-- Further objects of the Western Powers--Invasion of the Crimea--Battle of the Alma--The Flank March--Balaclava--Inkermann--Winter in the Crimea--Death of Nicholas--Conference of Vienna--Austria--Progress of the Siege--Plans of Napoleon III.--Canrobert and Pélissier--Unsuccessful Assault--Battle of the Tchernaya--Capture of the Malakoff--Fall of Sebastopol--Fall of Kars--Negotiations for Peace--The Conference of Paris--Treaty of Paris--The Danubian Principalities--Continued discord in the Ottoman Empire--Revision of the Treaty of Paris in 1871
THE CREATION OF THE ITALIAN KINGDOM.
Piedmont after 1849--Ministry of Azeglio--Cavour Prime Minister--Designs of Cavour--His Crimean Policy--Cavour at the Conference of Paris--Cavour and Napoleon III.--The Meeting at Plombières--Preparations in Italy--Treaty of January, 1859--Attempts at Mediation--Austrian Ultimatum--Campaign of 1859--Magenta--Movement in Central Italy--Solferino--Napoleon and Prussia--Interview of Villafranca--Cavour resigns--Peace of Zürich--Central Italy after Villafranca--The Proposed Congress--"The Pope and the Congress"--Cavour resumes office--Cavour and Napoleon--Union of the Duchies and the Romagna with Piedmont--Savoy and Nice added to France--Cavour on this cession--European opinion--Naples--Sicily--Garibaldi lands at Marsala--Capture of Palermo--The Neapolitans evacuate Sicily--Cavour and the Party of Action--Cavour's Policy as to Naples--Garibaldi on the mainland--Persano and Villamarina at Naples--Garibaldi at Naples--The Piedmontese Army enters Umbria and the Marches--Fall of Ancona--Garibaldi and Cavour--The Armies on the Volturno--Fall of Gaeta--Cavour's Policy with regard to Rome and Venice--Death of Cavour--The Free Church in the Free State
GERMAN ASCENDENCY WON BY PRUSSIA.
Germany after 1858--The Regency in Prussia--Army-reorganisation--King William I.--Conflict between the Crown and the Parliament--Bismarck--The struggle continued--Austria from 1859--The October Diploma--Resistance of Hungary--The Reichsrath--Russia under Alexander II.--Liberation of the Serfs--Poland--The Insurrection of 1863--Agrarian measures in Poland-- Schleswig-Holstein--Death of Frederick VII.--Plans of Bismarck--Campaign in Schleswig--Conference of London--Treaty of Vienna--England and Napoleon III.--Prussia and Austria--Convention of Gastein--Italy--Alliance of Prussia with Italy--Proposals for a Congress fail--War between Austria and Prussia--Napoleon III.--Königgrätz--Custozza--Mediation of Napoleon --Treaty of Prague--South Germany--Projects for compensation to France--Austria and Hungary--Deák--Establishment of the Dual System in Austria-Hungary
THE WAR BETWEEN FRANCE AND GERMANY.
Napoleon III.--The Mexican Expedition--Withdrawal of the French and death of Maximilian--The Luxemburg Question--Exasperation in France against Prussia--Austria--Italy--Mentana--Germany after 1866--The Spanish Candidature of Leopold of Hohenzollern--French declaration--Benedetti and King William--Withdrawal of Leopold and demand for guarantees--The telegram from Ems--War--Expected Alliances of France--Austria--Italy--Prussian plans--The French army--Causes of French inferiority--Weissenburg--Wörth-- Spicheren--Borny--Mars-la-Tour--Gravelotte--Sedan--The Republic proclaimed at Paris--Favre and Bismarck--Siege of Paris--Gambetta at Tours--The Army of the Loire--Fall of Metz--Fighting at Orleans--Sortie of Champigny--The Armies of the North, of the Loire, of the East--Bourbaki's ruin-- Capitulation of Paris and Armistice--Preliminaries of Peace--Germany-- Establishment of the German Empire--The Commune of Paris--Second Siege-- Effects of the war as to Russia and Italy--Rome
France after 1871--Alliance of the Three Emperors--Revolt of Herzegovina-- The Andrássy Note--Murder of the Consuls at Salonika--The Berlin Memorandum--Rejected by England--Abdul Aziz deposed--Massacres in Bulgaria--Servia and Montenegro declare War--Opinion in England--Disraeli-- Meeting of Emperors at Reichstadt--Servian Campaign--Declaration of the Czar--Conference at Constantinople--Its Failure--The London Protocol-- Russia declares War--Advance on the Balkans--Osman at Plevna--Second Attack on Plevna--The Shipka Pass--Roumania--Third Attack on Plevna--Todleben-- Fall of Plevna--Passage of the Balkans--Armistice--England--The Fleet passes the Dardanelles--Treaty of San Stefano--England and Russia--Secret Agreement--Convention with Turkey--Congress of Berlin--Treaty of Berlin--Bulgaria
EUROPEAN STATES IN 1792
CENTRAL EUROPE IN 1812
Outbreak of the Revolutionary War in 1792--Its immediate causes-- Declaration of Pillnitz made and withdrawn--Agitation of the Priests and Emigrants--War Policy of the Gironde--Provocations offered to France by the Powers--State of Central Europe in 1792--The Holy Roman Empire-- Austria--Rule of the Hapsburgs--The Reforms of Maria Theresa and Joseph II.--Policy of Leopold II.--Government and Foreign Policy of Francis II.--Prussia--Government of Frederick William II.--Social condition or Prussia--Secondary States of Germany--Ecclesiastical States--Free Cities--Knights--Weakness of Germany
On the morning of the 19th of April, 1792, after weeks of stormy agitation in Paris, the Ministers of Louis XVI. brought down a letter from the King to the Legislative Assembly of France. The letter was brief but significant. It announced that the King intended to appear in the Hall of Assembly at noon on the following day. Though the letter did not disclose the object of the King's visit, it was known that Louis had given way to the pressure of his Ministry and the national cry for war, and that a declaration of war against Austria was the measure which the King was about to propose in person to the Assembly. On the morrow the public thronged the hall; the Assembly broke off its debate at midday in order to be in readiness for the King. Louis entered the hall in the midst of deep silence, and seated himself beside the President in the chair which was now substituted for the throne of France. At the King's bidding General Dumouriez, Minister of Foreign Affairs, read a report to the Assembly upon the relations of France to foreign Powers. The report contained a long series of charges against Austria, and concluded with the recommendation of war. When Dumouriez ceased reading Louis rose, and in a low voice declared that he himself and the whole of the Ministry accepted the report read to the Assembly; that he had used every effort to maintain peace, and in vain; and that he was now come, in accordance with the terms of the Constitution, to propose that the Assembly declare war against the Austrian Sovereign. It was not three months since Louis himself had supplicated the Courts of Europe for armed aid against his own subjects. The words which he now uttered were put in his mouth by men whom he hated, but could not resist: the very outburst of applause that followed them only proved the fatal antagonism that existed between the nation and the King. After the President of the Assembly had made a short answer, Louis retired from the hall. The Assembly itself broke up, to commence its debate on the King's proposal after an interval of some hours. When the House re-assembled in the evening, those few courageous men who argued on grounds of national interest and justice against the passion of the moment could scarcely obtain a hearing. An appeal for a second day's discussion was rejected; the debate abruptly closed; and the declaration of war was carried against seven dissentient votes. It was a decision big with consequences for France and for the world. From that day began the struggle between Revolutionary France and the established order of Europe. A period opened in which almost every State on the Continent gained some new character from the aggressions of France, from the laws and political changes introduced by the conqueror, or from the awakening of new forces of national life in the crisis of successful resistance or of humiliation. It is my intention to trace the great lines of European history from that time to the present, briefly sketching the condition of some of the principal States at the outbreak of the Revolutionary War, and endeavouring to distinguish, amid scenes of ever-shifting incident, the steps by which the Europe of 1792 has become the Europe of today.
[First threats of foreign Courts against France, 1791.]
The first two years of the Revolution had ended without bringing France into collision with foreign Powers. This was not due to any goodwill that the Courts of Europe bore to the French people, or to want of effort on the part of the French aristocracy to raise the armies of Europe against their own country. The National Assembly, which met in 1789, had cut at the roots of the power of the Crown; it had deprived the nobility of their privilees, and laid its hand upon the revenues of the Church. The brothers of King Louis XVI., with a host of nobles too impatient to pursue a course of steady political opposition at home, quitted France, and wearied foreign Courts with their appeals for armed assistance. The absolute monarchs of the Continent gave them a warm and even ostentatious welcome; but they confined their support to words and tokens of distinction, and until the summer of 1791 the Revolution was not seriously threatened with the
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