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- School and Home Cooking - 103/103 -
1/8 teaspoonful salt 1 tablespoonful water 1 tablespoonful vinegar 1 tablespoonful ground cinnamon _or_ 2 drops of oil of cinnamon
Put all the ingredients except oil of cinnamon into a saucepan and boil to the crack stage. If oil of cinnamon is used for flavoring, add it to the mixture after cooking. Pour into a greased pan. When cool enough to handle, take a small portion and shape it into a ball. If the candy becomes too stiff to shape, it may be placed in an oven until it is soft enough to handle.
Oil of cinnamon produces a more pleasing flavor than ground cinnamon. However, the former is expensive. If it is added, the use of a medicine dropper prevents its waste.
What ingredient does corn sirup contain that would make it effective in preparing creamy candy?
Explain the use of corn sirup, cream of tartar, sour milk, and vinegar in these candies. In Fudge, why is the butter added just before removing the candy from the fire (see _Frying and Digestion_)?
Why are not the nuts cooked in the Panocha mixture?
Why is butter or substitute omitted in Panocha if sour cream is substituted for sweet milk?
If a thermometer is used for testing sirups, what precaution should be taken against breaking?
From _U. S. Department of Agriculture_, Bulletin No. 28, tabulate the percentage composition of granulated (see Figure 94), powdered, brown, and maple sugars. What is the price per pound of each?
How many cupfuls in a pound of brown sugar?
Considering the percentage of carbohydrates, and the price per pound of granulated and brown sugar, which is the cheaper?
Tabulate the percentage composition of honey, of molasses, and of maple sirup.
How much fudge, by weight, does 1 pound of sugar make?
What is the cost per pound of homemade fudge?
SUGGESTIONS FOR TEACHING
In using this text, the teacher may follow the _order_ of _presenting_ a lesson which she considers most satisfactory. She may prefer to preface processes of cooking with a discussion of foods and reasons for the steps involved in the processes, or she may consider it advisable to have the pupils do the cooking and discuss foods and methods later. In case both the so-called "theory" and practical work are undertaken in the same lesson, the time required to cook the food often determines the order of the lesson. In either case, this text may be used to advantage.
Although recipes in definitely stated form appear in the book, the teacher need not refer to them in class, or place them upon the board previous to the lesson. She may prefer to lead the pupils to develop a recipe. The latter method is valuable in training pupils to know the proper quantity of food materials to combine for practical _recipe making_, and to know how to _substitute_ one food material for another.
The _relation_ of one recipe to another is shown in this text and should be constantly emphasized. The pupils should be made to understand that there are a few basic recipes from which many may be developed.
Much attention should be given to the _cost_ of foods. At frequent intervals, pupils should be required to compute the cost of particular dishes or of entire meals. The _buying_ of foods by the pupils is most valuable. In table service lessons, it is advisable to have the pupils not only plan and cook foods but, when possible, buy them.
In teaching _table service lessons_, the greatest care should be taken to adapt the lessons to the standard of living of the pupils. In communities where the equipment for serving foods is most meagre, a special effort should be made to make the best use of such dishes and furnishings as are found in the homes of the pupils. Serving meals in a more pleasing way with more adequate (but not elaborate) equipment should also be taught. Methods of serving without a maid meet best the needs of most pupils of the public schools.
The cooking of foods by each pupil in _family quantity_ rather than in individual amount is valuable. To do this some practical way of disposing of the cooked products must be arranged. The lunch rooms of the school may serve as the means of disposal. In case the pupils of a school cook for the lunch room, the greatest care needs to be exercised by the teacher to place the responsibility of preparing a salable product upon the pupil. Too much assistance on the part of the teacher in directing the pupils' work and in deciding when a food is sufficiently cooked or baked, may interfere in developing initiative in pupils,--one of the aims to be accomplished in education. The plan of having each pupil prepare a food for the first time in individual quantity and then later in family quantity for the lunch room has proved satisfactory in some cases.
This text furnishes material for a _year's_ work, if five lessons per week (at least ninety minutes in length) are given; or for _two years'_ work, if the curriculum provides for but two or three lessons per week. If it is necessary to arrange a shorter course, certain lessons may be omitted or assigned for home work, or lessons may be combined.
If the teacher wishes to _correlate_ food study with some other subject such as general science, or physiology, chemistry, or physics, the time may be extended, or the order of work may be changed to fit the particular requirements. Because many of the lessons of the first eight divisions treat of the uses of the foods in the body, they are especially good for correlation with physiology. The remaining lessons, many of which emphasize food composition, may be correlated to advantage with chemistry.
If for any reason an entire semester's work is to be devoted to table service, including the planning, buying, cooking, and serving of foods and determining the cost and computing the calorific value of the foods, the material found in _Related Work_--the lessons placed at the end of each division--will be found adequate for such a course.
BOOKS FOR REFERENCE
_Bevier and Van Meter_: Selection and Preparation of Food. _Brechner_: Household Physics. _Brownlee and Others_: Chemistry of Common Things. _Buchanan_: Household Bacteriology. _Child Health Organization of America_: Pamphlets. _Cooley and Others_: Teaching Home Economics. _Conn_: Bacteria, Yeasts, and Molds in the Home. _Department of Household Science, University of Illinois_: Principles of Jelly-Making (Bulletin). _Farmer_: Food and Cookery for the Sick and the Convalescent. _Farmer_: The Boston Cooking School Cook Book. _Hill_: Cooking for Two. _Hill_: The Up-To-Date Waitress. _Holt_: The Care and Feeding of Children. _Holt and Sedgwick_: The Human Mechanism. _Holt and Shaw_: Save the Babies, Pamphlet. _Kansas Agricultural College_: Table Etiquette and Table Service (Bulletin). _Lincoln and Barrows_: Home Science Cook Book. _Lusk_: Elements of the Science of Nutrition. _Lusk_: Fundamental Basis of Nutrition. _McCollum_: The American Home Diet. _Mitchell_: Fireless Cook Book. _Pattee_: Practical Dietetics. _Richards, Ellen H._: The Cost of Food. _Rose_: Feeding the Family. _Rose_: Laboratory Handbook for Dietetics. _Sherman_: Chemistry of Food and Nutrition, Second Edition. _Sherman_: Food Products. _Styles_: Human Physiology. _Taber_: The Business of the Household. _U. S. Department of Agriculture_: Bulletins. _Van Rensselaer and Others_: A Manual of Home-Making. _Vulte_: Household Chemistry. _Vulte and Vanderbilt_: Food Industries.
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