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- School and Home Cooking - 20/103 -
Why are cereals not cooked entirely over the naked flame?
What is the price, weight, and measure of a package of Rolled Oats or Wheat? Of a package of Cream of Wheat or Wheatena?
What is the cost of the quantity of cereal indicated in the recipes above?
Calculate the difference in the cost per pound of ready-to-eat and uncooked cereals.
CEREALS: RICE (A)
POLISHED AND UNPOLISHED RICE.--At market one finds two kinds of rice,--one white and pearly in appearance called _polished_ rice, and the other, gray or brown and lusterless called _unpolished_ rice. In preparing rice for market, the outer husks of the grain are removed and the rice is cleaned. It may then be sold as unpolished rice or it may be further treated by rubbing or polishing to make it ready for market. Rice is subjected to this latter process merely to satisfy the demand of purchasers. The food value of polished rice is inferior to that of the unpolished grain. Much valuable ash and other material are lost. Indeed, a certain disease, [Footnote 22: Beri-beri, a disease common among those inhabitants of Oriental countries whose diet consists almost entirely of polished rice and fish.] due to improper nourishment, has been cured by giving the sufferer rice polishings. The flavor of rice is also impaired by polishing it. Unpolished rice is much the more valuable food. It requires, however, longer cooking than polished rice. Soaking in water before cooking shortens the length of time required for cooking.
TO CLEAN RICE.--To wash rice, put it in a strainer and allow the water from a faucet to run through the strainer. Rub the rice between the hands.
RICE (cooked over boiling water)
3 cupfuls boiling water 1 teaspoonful salt 1 cupful rice
Follow the General Rules for Cooking Cereals; when the rice is added to the boiling water, stir it to prevent adhering to the pan. Cook over hot water, _i.e._ in a double boiler, until the grains are soft (usually about 45 minutes).
The above ingredients may be placed in a steamer (see Figure 31) and cooked in steam until the rice grains are tender. It is then called _Steamed Rice_.
Rice is most palatable combined with various fruits.
ENERGY-GIVING OR FUEL FOODS
[Illustration: FIGURE 24--A CUPFUL OF RICE BEFORE AND AFTER BOILING The large utensil was required to boil it, the water drained from it is in the jar]
BOILED RICE [Footnote 23: Reserve some of the cooked rice of this lesson for the following lesson.]
3 quarts boiling water 1 cupful rice 2 teaspoonfuls salt
Add the salt to the boiling water. When the water boils rapidly, add the rice slowly, so that the water does not stop boiling. Boil _rapidly_ for 20 minutes or until the grains are soft. Turn into a colander or strainer to drain. Rinse with hot water, drain well, then sprinkle with salt.
Save the water from the Boiled Rice for the experiment below and for preparing Cheese Sauce for class work.
When the rice is boiling, decide whether or not it should be covered tightly.
EXPERIMENT 20 THE DIFFERENCE IN NUTRITIVE VALUE OF BOILED RICE AND RICE COOKED OVER BOILING WATER--Pour a little of the water from the boiled rice into a test tube. Cool the rice water and test it with iodine for starch. Is any of the starch from rice cooked over boiling water wasted? Which method of cooking rice leaves more nutriment in the cooked product?
CHEESE SAUCE (made with rice water)
1 pint rice water 1 tablespoonful corn-starch 1 teaspoonful salt 1/4 teaspoonful mustard 1/6 teaspoonful paprika 1/2 cupful cheese grated or cut into pieces
Mix the corn-starch with about 2 tablespoonfuls of cold rice water. Heat the remainder of the liquid. Add the corn-starch mixture to the hot rice water. Stir and cook for about 10 minutes. Then add the seasonings and cheese. Continue stirring and cooking until the cheese is blended with the other ingredients. Serve hot over cooked rice.
One cupful of tomatoes or a small quantity of pimentos (cut into pieces) may be added along with the cheese to the sauce. If pimentos are used, the paprika should be omitted.
How is rice tested for sufficient cooking?
Why does rice take a shorter time to cook than most of the wheat and oat foods? (See _Cereals_.)
Note the difference in the quantity of water used for boiled rice and for rice cooked over boiling water. Note that the saucepan is used for cooking one and the double boiler for cooking the other. From this explain the reason for the difference in the quantity of water used.
Which method of cooking rice takes longer? Explain the difference in the length of time of cooking.
Measure the rice after cooking. How much has it increased in bulk? If one desired 2 cupfuls of cooked rice, how much uncooked rice should be used?
Compare the individual grains of rice cooked in boiling water and rice cooked over boiling water,--are the grains separated or pasted together? Explain the difference in appearance.
What ingredients do cereals contain that make it possible to mold them (see Experiment 17)? Which is the better for molding,--boiled rice or rice cooked over boiling water? Why?
What is the advantage in using rice water rather than plain water to prepare Cheese Sauce?
What other use could be made of rice water?
CEREALS: RICE (B)
Steamed rice may be prepared for a simple dessert by using both milk and water. Follow the recipe for Rice Cooked over Boiling Water, using 1 1/2 cupfuls of water and l 1/2 cupfuls of milk. Cook the water and rice until the water is absorbed, add the milk, and continue cooking over water. Serve with cream and sugar, or with a suitable sauce.
RICE PUDDING (made with cooked rice) [Footnote 24: A portion of the rice cooked in the previous lesson may be utilized in making this pudding.]
2 cupfuls cooked rice 3/4 - 1 cupful milk 1/2 cupful raisins 1/3 cupful sugar Grated rind 1/2 lemon
These ingredients may be cooked in several different ways. By changing the flavoring, method of serving, and sauce, rice desserts of pleasing variety may be made from the materials above.
The pudding may be _baked_ in the following manner: Mix the ingredients, place in a buttered baking-dish, and bake in a slow oven until the rice has absorbed the milk and is brown. Vanilla or nutmeg, or both, may be substituted for the lemon rind.
This dessert may be _cooked over water_ by mixing the ingredients in the top of a double boiler and cooking until the milk is absorbed. Then butter hot custard cups or tea cups and press some rice into each. Turn out at once and serve with Caramel, Chocolate, or other sauce.
Lemon Sauce, in which dates, cut into pieces, have been cooked, makes a tasty sauce for this pudding. When Lemon Sauce and dates are used, the raisins should be omitted and the pudding flavored with nutmeg.
1/3 cupful sugar 2 tablespoonfuls flour 1 tablespoonful butter or substitute 1 cupful milk 1/2 teaspoonful vanilla Salt
Mix the sugar, flour, and butter in a frying pan; then heat the mixture to caramelize the sugar, stirring constantly. Scald the milk in a double boiler. When the sugar is caramelized, add it to the hot milk and heat the mixture until the caramelized sugar is dissolved. Add the salt and vanilla. [Footnote 25: If the sauce is to be served cold, it is well to allow the cooked mixture to cool before adding the vanilla (see _Flavoring Extracts_).] Serve hot or cold over puddings.
Why is it advisable to use a double boiler for cooking rice? (See Lesson XX)
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