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soluble A. It does not exist in the vegetable oils.

It has been demonstrated that foods rich in fat-soluble A, especially milk, eggs, and leafy vegetables, are most essential in diet. According to McCollum, dry leaves contain 3 to 5 times as much total ash as do seeds; the former are also especially rich in the important elements calcium, sodium, and chlorine, in which the seed is poorest. Hence leafy vegetables not only abound in the growth-promoting vitamine but in certain essential minerals. Cereals, root vegetables, and meat need to be supplemented with milk and leafy vegetables. Because milk, eggs, and leafy vegetables are so valuable and essential in diet, these foods have been termed _protective foods_. Fresh milk contains fat-soluble A and a small quantity of water-soluble B and water-soluble C. Its value as a food has been previously discussed. Doubtless the leafy vegetables are not as generally and as constantly used as they should be. Root vegetables and cereals seem to be a much more popular form of vegetable food. The pupil should realize the importance of these foods and when possible explain their use in her home. Learning to prepare leafy vegetables so as to retain their nutriment and to make them appetizing would doubtless do much in promoting their use.

FOODS CONTAINING WATER-SOLUBLE B.--Water-soluble B is more widely distributed in foods than is fat-soluble A. It occurs for the most part, however, in vegetable foods. Plants containing this vitamine include seeds, root, stem, and leafy vegetables. Whole grains, legumes, spinach, cabbage, potatoes, carrots, onions, turnips, beets, and tomatoes and all other commonly used vegetables contain water-soluble B. It is thought that the germ of whole grains, rather than the bran, furnishes water-soluble B. Compressed yeast contains some of this vitamine, but none of the other two.

FOODS CONTAINING WATER-SOLUBLE C include both animal and vegetable foods, but fresh fruits and green vegetables contain the largest quantity. Orange juice, lettuce, cabbage, and spinach are valuable sources of this vitamine. Milk and meat contain only a very small quantity of water- soluble C.

SAVING THE NUTRIMENT AND FLAVOR.--It was mentioned in _Suggestions for Cooking Fresh Vegetables_ that a saving of ash in vegetables meant a saving of both nutriment and flavor. If vegetables of delicate flavor are to be made tasty, it is especially necessary to lose none of the ash constituents. Note that in the methods of cooking the vegetables of delicate flavor in this lesson that either the vegetables are cooked in such a way that no moisture needs to be drained from them, or the vegetable stock drained from them is used in making sauce for the vegetable. By these methods both nutriment and flavor are retained.

SPINACH

1 pound or 1/2 peck spinach 1/2 tablespoonful salt 1/8 teaspoonful pepper 2 tablespoonfuls butter

If the spinach is at all wilted, place it in cold water until it becomes fresh and crisp. Cut off the roots, break the leaves apart, and drop them in a pan of water. Wash well, and then lift them into a second pan of water; wash again, and continue until no sand appears in the bottom of the pan. Lift from the water, drain, and place in a granite utensil, and add the seasoning. Steam until tender (usually about 30 minutes). Add the butter, cut the leaves with a knife and fork. Turn into a hot dish and serve at once.

Spinach is most pleasing if served with a few drops of vinegar or a combination of oil and vinegar. If desired, the pepper may be omitted and 1 tablespoonful of sugar added. Spinach may also be garnished with slices of hard-cooked eggs, using 2 eggs to 1/2 peck of spinach.

Spinach may be cooked directly over the flame, as follows: wash the spinach as directed above. Then drain, and place in a saucepan or casserole. Do not add water unless the spinach is old. Add the seasoning, cover, and cook for 10 minutes, pressing down and turning over the spinach several times during the cooking. Cut with a knife and fork in the saucepan or casserole. Add the butter, and simmer for 5 minutes. Serve at once.

SCALLOPED SPINACH WITH CHEESE

1 pound spinach 1 cupful thick White Sauce 1/2 cupful cheese, cut in pieces 2 to 3 hard-cooked eggs, sliced 2 cupfuls buttered bread crumbs

Wash the spinach and cook it by either of the methods given above. Season it with 1/2 tablespoonful of salt.

Drain the moisture from the cooked spinach. Use this liquid combined with milk for the liquid of the White Sauce. Season the sauce with 1/2 teaspoonful of salt and add the cheese to it. Stir the mixture until the cheese is blended with the sauce.

Divide the spinach, sauce, and eggs into 2 portions and the bread crumbs into 3 portions, as directed for Scalloped Corn. Place a layer of crumbs in a baking-dish, add a layer of spinach, sauce, and eggs. Add another layer of each material and finally the third layer of crumbs. Bake in a moderate oven until the materials are heated and the crumbs browned. Serve hot.

DRIED CELERY LEAVES [Footnote 58: The stems of celery from which the leaves are cut, should be utilized. They may be used in a salad or cooked and served with White Sauce as Creamed Celery. If the vegetable is cooked, it should be steamed or cooked in a small quantity of boiling water. In case the latter method is followed, the celery stock should be combined with milk and used in the preparation of the White Sauce.]

Wash celery leaves and remove the stems. Place the leaves on a platter or granite pan, cover with cheese-cloth, and set aside to dry. When perfectly dry, crumble the leaves and place them in a covered jar. Use for flavoring soups and stews.

QUESTIONS

In what kind of soil does spinach grow?

What is the advantage of using two pans in washing spinach?

What is the advantage of cooking in steam green vegetables of delicate flavor?

If green vegetables are cooked in water, what is the advantage in using a small, rather than a large quantity of water?

What is the price of spinach per pound or peck? How many persons does one pound or peck serve?

What is the price of celery per bunch?

What vitamines are present in spinach and celery leaves and stems?

LESSON LXXX

VITAMINES--VEGETABLES OF STRONG FLAVOR

THE EFFECT OF COOKING AND DRYING VITAMINE-RICH FOODS.--Since vitamines are so essential in food, the effect of cooking and drying upon the vitamine content of a food needs to be considered. There has been some difference of opinion regarding this matter. Indeed, the question of whether or not vitamines of all vitamine-rich foods are destroyed by cooking and drying has not been determined. It is thought, however, that fat-soluble A may be destroyed in part by cooking at boiling temperature and that prolonged cooking may almost entirely destroy it.

Water-soluble B is thought to be little affected by ordinary home cooking processes. But when foods containing it are heated above boiling temperature, as in commercial canning and cooking in the pressure cooker, the vitamine is believed to be partially or completely destroyed. It is thought the water-soluble B vitamine present in foods is destroyed by cooking them in water to which baking soda or any alkali is added.

Water-soluble C is decidedly affected by heat. Vegetables cooked for even twenty minutes at boiling temperature lose much of their usefulness in preventing scurvy. It is thought, however, that very young carrots cooked for a short time, and canned tomatoes, contain water-soluble C. Drying also destroys to a great extent the anti-scorbutic effect of foods containing water-soluble C. Most dried vegetables and fruits have been found valueless in checking scurvy.

Since there is no question about the vitamine content of uncooked vegetables, the use of salads containing lettuce and raw vegetables such as cabbage and carrots should find favor. Spinach is a valuable food not only because it

contains vitamines, but because it is rich in iron. Young beet tops so often discarded contain too much valuable material to be wasted.

NUTRIMENT _VERSUS_ FLAVOR.--If vegetables of strong flavor are cooked carefully in a large quantity of boiling water (at least 4 quarts), a mild flavor results, but much of the ash is lost. If vegetables are steamed there is little loss of ash but the strong flavor is retained. In the cooking of cabbage, for example, investigation has shown that almost four times as much ash may be lost by boiling as by steaming.

In the cooking of such vegetables as cabbage and onions the question arises: Is it better to steam them and thus lose little nutriment but preserve the strong flavor; or to boil them in much water and thus lose much nutriment but secure delicate flavor? If strong cabbage flavor is not distasteful, steam it or cook it in a small quantity of water by all means. If delicate cabbage flavor is much more pleasing, cook it in much water. Onions have such a strong flavor that most housekeepers prefer to sacrifice nutriment for flavor.

CREAMED CABBAGE (Cooked in Much Water)

A head of cabbage should be cut into quarters and placed in cold water. If it is wilted, it should remain in the water until freshened. Cook the cabbage uncovered from 15 to 25 minutes in a large quantity of boiling water (1 teaspoonful of salt to I quart of water). The time depends upon the age of the cabbage. Drain well. With the knife and fork cut the cabbage in the saucepan. (Do not discard the core of young cabbage since it contains valuable nutrients.) Mix with White Sauce, using two parts of cabbage to one of White Sauce. Heat and serve (see _Creamed and Scalloped Vegetables_).

_Scalloped Cabbage_ may be prepared by placing creamed cabbage in a baking-dish, covering with Buttered Crumbs and baking until the crumbs are


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