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removed together. Care must be taken that the gall bladder, which lies under the liver, is not broken; it must be cut away carefully from the liver. The lungs and kidneys, lying in the hollow of the backbone, must be carefully removed. Press the heart to extract the blood. Cut off the outer coat of the gizzard. The gizzard, heart, and liver constitute the giblets to be used in making gravy. Wash the giblets. Place them all, with the exception of the liver, in cold water; heat quickly and cook (at simmering temperature) until tender. Add the liver a short time before removing the other giblets from the stove, as it does not require long cooking.
Clean the bird by wiping it thoroughly inside and out with a damp cloth, stuff and truss for roasting, or cut into pieces for fricassee or stew. If the bird is stuffed, the incision in the skin may be fastened together as directed for Baked Fish.
TRUSSING FOWL.--Insert a skewer through the fowl just underneath the legs, then thrust another skewer through the wings and breast. With a piece of string, tie the ends of the legs together and fasten them to the tail. Then wind the ends of the string fastened to the tail, around the ends of the skewer beneath the legs. Cross the strings over the back, and wind them around the ends of the skewer through the wings; tie the strings together at the back. If trussed in this manner, there is no string across the breast of the fowl. A fowl should be served breast side up (see Figures 72 and 73).
CUTTING A FOWL.--Cut off the leg, and separate it at the joint into "drumstick" and second joint. Cut off the wing and remove the tip; make an incision at the middle joint. Remove the leg and wing from the other side; separate the wishbone with the meat on it, from the breast, cut through the ribs on each side, and separate the breast from the back. Cut the breast in half lengthwise and the back through the middle crosswise. There should be twelve pieces. The neck and the tips of the wings may be cooked with the giblets for making gravy.
STEWED CHICKEN [Footnote 69: Stewed Chicken may be utilized for _Chicken Croquettes_) or _Creole Stew_.]
Cover the pieces of chicken with boiling water, and cook at boiling temperature for 15 minutes; then add one tablespoonful of salt and cook at simmering temperature until tender.
Arrange the pieces on a platter, placing the neck at one end of the platter and the "drumsticks" at the other, and the remaining pieces in order between. Cover with a sauce.
The chicken may be placed on pieces of _toast_ or served in a border of cooked _rice_.
SAUCE FOR CHICKEN
3 tablespoonfuls tried-out chicken fat or butter or substitute 1/4 cupful of flour 1 teaspoonful salt 2 tablespoonfuls chopped parsley 1 pint stock 2 egg yolks or 1 egg 1/8 teaspoonful pepper
Prepare the sauce (see _Cream Toast_), and pour it over the well- beaten eggs, stirring until thoroughly mixed. Cook until the eggs are coagulated. Serve at once over chicken.
Why is chicken more readily digested than other meat?
What is the reason for cooking stewed chicken 15 minutes in _boiling_ water? Why is the salt not added at first? Why should the chicken finally be cooked at simmering temperature rather than at boiling?
What use can be made of the fat of a fowl?
What is the purpose of the eggs in Sauce for Chicken?
Explain fully why rice or toast makes a desirable addition to Stewed Chicken.
CHICKEN AND PEAS
2 1/2 cupfuls chopped chicken or fowl Onion juice 2 tablespoonfuls lemon juice 1 tablespoonful parsley
1 pint cream or milk 1/3 cupful fat 1/2 cupful flour 1 1/2 teaspoonfuls salt 1/8 teaspoonful pepper 1 teaspoonful celery salt
Chop the chicken very fine; add the seasonings. Make the sauce (see _Cream Toast_). Add the chicken to the sauce. Cool the mixture. Shape into cones. Cover with dried bread crumbs and egg, and cook in deep fat (see _Fried Oysters_). Drain on paper. Serve at once with green peas.
An egg may be beaten and added to the sauce, before mixing it with the meat.
What is the purpose of cooling the chicken mixture before shaping it into croquettes (see Experiment 17)?
How many croquettes does this recipe make?
How many cupfuls of chopped meat can be obtained from fowl of average weight?
What is the average weight of a chicken one year old? How long does it take to cook it?
What is the average weight of a spring chicken?
What is the present market price of spring chicken? Of fowl?
Compare the composition of fowl with that of round steak, using _U. S. Department of Agriculture Bulletin No. 28_. Also record the percentage of refuse in a fowl when it is purchased. Considering the refuse in fowl, what is the price per pound?
Tabulate the percentage composition of fresh and dried peas and beans, and of dried lentils. Which are richer in protein, the fresh or the dried vegetables (see Figure 76)?
EXPERIMENT 63. PROTEIN IN OYSTER LIQUOR.--Pour a small quantity of oyster liquor into a test tube and boil it. What change takes place? From your previous experience with eggs, what foodstuff would you infer that oysters contain? What inference can you draw from this as to the temperature at which oysters should be cooked?
OYSTERS.--An oyster is an animal covered with shell. The shell, which consists of mineral matter, protects the animal.
[Illustration: FIGURE 74--COMPOSITION OF FISH, FISH PRODUCTS AND OYSTERS (Revised edition)]
The oyster has no head, arms, or legs, but it has a mouth, liver, gills, and one strong muscle. The mouth is near the hinge-end of the shell; by means of the hinge, the shell is opened and water and food taken in; by means of the muscle, the shell is closed. (Find the muscle in an oyster; then the dark spot,--this is the liver; also find the fluted portions that partly surround the liver,--these are the gills.)
Oysters are in season from September until May. They are sometimes eaten during the summer months, but are not so palatable and are more apt to be contaminated by the bacteria of warm water. The bluish green color of some oysters is due to the oyster's feeding upon vegetable materials. This does not harm the flavor of the oyster.
Oysters are sometimes placed in fresh water streams or in water which is less salt than that in which they have grown to "fatten them." The animals take in the fresh water, become plump, and increase in weight. If the water is sewage-polluted, the oysters become contaminated with dangerous bacteria. Methods of cooking usually applied to oysters, such as stewing and boiling, may not destroy all bacteria. Hence, the danger in eating oysters taken from polluted water.
When oysters are prepared for market, they are sorted according to size. Blue points, or small oysters originally grown in Blue Point, are prized for serving raw in the half shell. This name, however, no longer indicates the place from which the oysters come, but is applied to small oysters in the shell. Large oysters selected for frying may be purchased. Oysters are found at markets either in the shell or with the shell removed.
Since oysters spoil readily, they must be kept cold during transportation. They are now shipped in containers surrounded by ice. Formerly ice was placed in contact with the oysters.
Note the percentage composition of oysters (see Figure 74). With such a large quantity of water, the oyster has little food value. Oysters are prized for their flavor, but make an expensive food. Cooking makes oysters somewhat tough, but it sterilizes them and makes them safer to use. It is considered that oysters properly cooked are easily digested. They should be eaten when very fresh. They spoil quickly and develop poisonous products.
CLEANING OYSTERS.--Drain off the liquor. If the liquor is to be used, strain it through a fine strainer. Place the oysters in a strainer or colander, and wash them. Do not allow oysters to stand in water after washing. Run each oyster through the fingers to remove pieces of shell that may be clinging to it.
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