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- School and Home Cooking - 70/103 -


Find the number of Calories produced by one ounce of milk.

Find the number of Calories produced by one ounce of egg.

Weigh out 100-Calorie portions of flour, butter, and sugar.

Measure these quantities, using a cup for the flour, a tablespoon for the butter, and a teaspoon for the sugar.

Compute 100-Calorie portions of milk and the edible portion of eggs, then weigh these portions.

Measure this portion of milk in a cup. How many eggs make a standard portion?

Why are water, salt, and yeast not considered when the fuel value is computed?

Compute the fuel value of 1 pint of Soft Custard.

Find the 100-Calorie portion of Soft Custard.

NOTE.--Forms A and B given on the following pages will be found convenient in recording the results of these calculations.

LESSON CXVII

PLANNING, COOKING, AND SERVING A DINNER

Plan a plain dinner. [Footnote 89: See footnote 72.] Use seasonable foods. Follow the suggestions given in Lesson CV. Plan the menu so that the cost of the materials used does not exceed 25 cents per person. Analyze the menu and see that it meets the requirements stated in Lesson CV.

Cook and serve the dinner. Follow the English or family style of serving. Serve the meal without a maid.

[Illustration: FORM A: CALCULATION OF 100-CALORIE PORTIONS OF FOODS]

[Illustration: FORM B: CALCULATION OF FUEL VALUE OF RECIPES]

LESSON CXVIII

REVIEW: MEAL COOKING

MENU

Cereal Griddle Cakes Fruit Sirup Coffee

_or_

Butterscotch Apples Gingerbread Tea

See Lesson XIV regarding suggestions for the preparation of the lesson.

LESSON CXIX

HOME PROJECTS [Footnote 90: See Lesson IX.]

SUGGESTIONS FOR HOME WORK.--Prepare a quick bread such as Popovers or Gingerbread in your home at least once a week.

If griddle cakes are served in your home, prepare cakes at least once a week.

Calculate the cost of these breads.

Suggested Aims:

(1) To use various leavens in quick breads. To compare results secured by using sweet milk or water with baking powder, and sour milk with baking soda, or sour milk with baking soda and baking powder.

(2) To use different liquids in Gingerbread, viz., sour milk, water, sweet milk. To compare results obtained by the use of each.

DIVISION ELEVEN

QUICK BREADS: DROP BATTERS

LESSON CXX

FINE AND COARSE FLOURS--MUFFINS

DIFFERENCES IN WHEAT FLOURS.--Examine white flour, whole wheat flour, and graham flour. Notice the difference in color, grittiness, and quantity of bran (cellulose).

As has been mentioned before, all cereals or grains have an outer hard covering of cellulose (see _Cellulose_). Cereals also contain a germ from which the young plant springs. In the preparation of fine flours, the germ and most of the cellulose covering are removed. Whole wheat (erroneously named) has part of the outer covering removed. Graham [Footnote 91: Graham flour is so called because Dr. Sylvester Graham advocated the use of the entire grain and devised a method of preparing it.] flour, properly made, contains all the materials of the wheat grain. The germ is rich in fat, protein, and ash. The outer part, called _bran_, contains more ash, fat, and protein than does the center of the grain. Hence with the removal of the germ and bran, much of the protein and ash is lost (see Figure 85). However, much graham flour is a mixture of inferior flour and bran.

THE MILLING OF FLOUR.--In the milling of fine flour, the wheat kernels are passed through a series of rollers and sifters that crush the wheat and separate the bran from the other materials. The greater the number of times the flour is subjected to the rolling and sifting process, the more thoroughly are the parts of the grain separated and the more finely are they crushed. When the separation is complete, the resulting fine flour consists almost entirely of the center of the crushed grains (called _middlings_). Flour made with fewer rollings and siftings contains more of the outer coats. In general, the term _patent_ is applied to flour made from the middlings. The flour containing more of the outer coats is called _baker's_ or family flour. Patent flour contains more starch than does baker's flour while baker's flour contains more protein than does patent flour. The terms _patent_ and _baker's_ vary in meaning, however, in different localities.

[Illustration: _From Maine Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin No. 103._ FIGURE 85.--LONGITUDINAL SECTION OF WHEAT GRAIN SHOWING BRAN (outer coatings), FLOURY PART (interior of grain), AND GERM (base of grain).]

VALUE OF COARSE FLOUR.--Analyses show that graham and whole wheat flours contain more protein and ash than fine white flour. So it would seem that breads made from these coarser flours furnish more body-building material. But investigations have shown that the protein contained in the coarse flours is not entirely assimilated and that about the same quantity of protein is digested and absorbed from fine as from coarse flours.

The coarser grain products, however, have more available ash than the fine flours. Indeed, experiments show that the bran of coarse cereals is a valuable source of ash [Footnote 92: See "Chemistry of Food and Nutrition," Second Edition, H. C. Sherman, p. 306, "Grain Products," and p. 308.] and that whole wheat flour is a more complete food than fine or bolted wheat flour. [Footnote 93: See "The Newer Knowledge of Nutrition," E.V. McCollum, p.140.] Doubtless, for many persons, whole wheat foods are more beneficial than fine flour products.

PER CENT OF NUTRIENTS; NUTRITIVE VALUES.--The per cent of nutrients in a food does not always indicate the quantity of nourishment it will yield. The nutrient must be in a condition to be absorbed. Wheat grains contain as much protein when whole as when ground into meal, yet uncooked whole wheat grains yield little nourishment to the body. They pass through the system with much nutriment unextracted. Even if the unbroken grains are thoroughly cooked, they will not furnish as much nourishment to the body as they will when in the form of meal.

In the consideration of nutritive value, the personal factor enters, for some persons assimilate food much more easily or completely than others. In summing up what has been said, it will be seen that three factors determine the nutritive value of a food: (_a_) per cent of nutrients, (_b_) form of nutrients, and (_c_) personal digestive characteristics.

DROP BATTERS.--All batters can be stirred with a spoon. Drop batters are somewhat stiffer than pour batters. They contain, approximately, _two parts of flour to one part of moisture_. Compare the Plain Muffin recipe below with that for Popovers. Note how the recipes differ in the quantity of flour used. Why do muffins contain baking powder, while popovers do not? Muffin mixture is a typical drop batter.

PLAIN MUFFINS

2 cupfuls flour 3 1/2 teaspoonfuls baking powder 1/2 teaspoonful salt 2 tablespoonfuls fat 1 to 2 tablespoonfuls sugar 1 egg 1 cupful milk

Break the egg into a mixing bowl, beat it. Add the milk to it. Melt the fat, add it to the egg mixture.

Measure the dry ingredients thoroughly. Add them (through a sifter) to the other ingredients. Mix quickly and thoroughly, and drop into buttered muffin pans. Bake in a hot oven (400 degrees F.) from 25 to 30 minutes.

_Whole wheat_ flour may be substituted for fine white flour.

For _graham_ muffins, use 1 cupful of fine white flour and 1 cupful


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