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bread making. It is possible to make good bread by using 1/3 as much mashed potato as wheat flour. Potato bread is moist; it keeps better than bread made entirely with wheat. It has been observed that bread containing potatoes or potato water rises quickly. It is possible that the growth of the yeast is stimulated by potato. Although bread containing potatoes is light, it is not as delicate or "fluffy" as plain wheat bread.

Since potatoes contain much moisture, the quantity of liquid used in making potato bread should be lessened. Because bread dough containing potatoes softens as it rises, sufficient flour should be added to make it very stiff or more flour added while kneading.

Much experimenting with bread during the World War showed that bread containing cereals other than wheat is more satisfactory when potatoes are used in making it. It was found that less of wheat and more of the other grains could be used when potatoes were added to the dough.

Bread made of grains other than wheat requires a greater quantity of yeast than wheat bread. The following explanation may account for this fact: Some recent scientific investigations point out the fact that the activity of yeast is increased when vinegar or other weak acid material is added to bread dough. Since the proteins of cereals other than wheat absorb more of the free acid of the dough than do the proteins of wheat, the acidity of the dough is lessened. Hence more yeast is required to leaven dough containing grains other than wheat.

GRAHAM BREAD

Use one half white bread flour and one half graham flour in the recipe given for Bread in order to make Graham Bread. One fourth cupful of molasses may be substituted for the sugar. Mix and bake as white bread.

Some consider that it is much more satisfactory to make a sponge when using graham flour. If this is done, first make a sponge using only one half the given quantity of flour. Let the mixture rise, then add the remainder of the flour, and proceed as in making white wheat bread.

WHOLE WHEAT BREAD

Follow the recipe for Bread, substituting whole wheat for the fine wheat bread flour, but make a soft, not stiff dough.

_Raisin Bread_ may be made by adding 2 cupfuls of seeded raisins to whole wheat bread mixture and increasing the sugar to 1/4 cupful or substituting 1/3 cupful molasses for the sugar. Use the greater quantity of yeast. Add the raisins to the mixture before adding the flour.

POTATO BREAD (2 loaves)

2 cupfuls dry mashed potatoes 1 cupful water in which potatoes were cooked 1 tablespoonful salt 1/2 cupful lukewarm water 2 tablespoonfuls sugar 1 tablespoonful fat 1/2 to 1 cake compressed yeast 5 1/2 to 6 cupfuls wheat bread flour

Pare 6 medium-sized potatoes. Cut into pieces and cook in boiling water until tender. Drain the water from the potatoes, but save the potato water to use as moisture for the dough, and for mixing with the yeast. Mash the potatoes; add the potato water, salt, sugar, and fat. Then proceed as directed for Bread.

OATMEAL-POTATO BREAD (2 loaves)

1 1/2 cupfuls potato water 2 cupfuls rolled oats 1 tablespoonful salt 2 teaspoonfuls sugar Wheat bread flour, about 6 cupfuls 1 tablespoonful fat 2 cupfuls dry mashed potatoes 1 cake compressed yeast 1 tablespoonful lukewarm water

Heat the liquid to boiling point. Pour it over the rolled oats. Add the salt, sugar, and fat. Stir and let stand until the mixture is lukewarm. Add the potatoes, then proceed as for plain bread. Let the dough rise in the pans until it is from 2 1/4 to 2 1/2 times its original bulk.

QUESTIONS

From _U.S. Department of Agriculture_, Bulletin No. 28, tabulate the percentage composition of white, of graham, and of whole wheat bread.

Under what conditions should a sponge be made when compressed yeast is used?

What kind of bread is most satisfactory in high altitudes, _i.e._ where the climate is dry? Explain.

Why is potato water a more valuable liquid for bread making than water?

What is the purpose of adding boiling water to rolled oats in making Oatmeal-Potato Bread (see _Substituting Other Cereals for Wheat Flour_)?

Compare the quantity of yeast used in Oatmeal-Potato Bread with that used in plain wheat bread. Account for the difference.

LESSON CXXXVIII

ROLLS AND BUNS

PLAIN ROLLS OR BISCUITS

For rolls or biscuits use the recipe for Bread, adding twice the quantity of fat, and using milk for part of the liquid. Or they may be made by kneading more fat into any bread dough. Knead well after the first rising; then cut into pieces half the size of an egg, and shape into balls. Place the balls some distance apart in a pan or place the balls so that one touches another. The latter plan of placing in the pan produces biscuits having a small amount of crust. Allow the biscuits to rise to double their bulk; then bake in a hot oven.

PARKER HOUSE ROLLS

2 cupfuls hot milk and water 3 tablespoonfuls fat 2 tablespoonfuls sugar 1 teaspoonful salt 1 yeast cake 1/4 cupful lukewarm water Bread flour

Make a sponge of the ingredients, using 3 cupfuls of flour. Beat thoroughly, cover, and let rise until light. Then add enough flour to knead. Knead, cover, and allow to rise until doubled in bulk. Knead again slightly, and roll out on a floured board until 1/3 of an inch in thickness. Cut into rounds with a biscuit cutter; put a bit of butter or substitute near the edge of the biscuit; fold; and press the edges together. Place in an oiled pan; cover. Let rise until double in bulk, and bake at 425 degrees F. from 20 to 30 minutes.

The crust may be _glazed_ with a mixture of milk and sugar a few minutes before removing the biscuits from the oven. Use 1 part sugar to 2 parts milk. Diluted egg white also may be used for glazing.

A corn-starch paste is sometimes used for _glazing_. It is made as follows: Mix 2 teaspoonfuls of corn-starch with the same quantity of cold water. Add 3/4 cupful of boiling water; stir and cook for 5 minutes. Brush this over the top of the rolls, sprinkle with sugar. Return the rolls to the oven and continue baking until the crust is browned.

POTATO YEAST ROLLS

Use the recipe for Parker House Rolls as a basic rule. In preparing the sponge, use 2 cupfuls of dry mashed potatoes instead of flour. Decrease the liquid to 1 cupful. Increase the quantity of salt to 1 tablespoonful. When the sponge is light, add sufficient wheat flour to make the dough of the proper consistency. Proceed as for plain wheat rolls.

_Rye flour_ may be used instead of wheat in preparing these rolls.

CINNAMON BUNS

Use one half of the recipe for Parker House Rolls. After the dough has risen, roll until 1/4 inch thick, and spread with the following:

1/2 cupful butter or butter and other fat softened 2 tablespoonfuls cinnamon 1 cupful currants or raisins 1 cupful brown sugar

Roll the dough as for Jelly Roll or for Fruit Rolls and cut into slices 1 inch thick. Place in well-oiled pans or muffin tins, with a cut surface resting on the pan. When very light, bake in a moderate oven about 30 minutes. The buns may be basted with molasses or sugar, or with a milk and sugar mixture (see _Parker House Rolls_). Add 1 teaspoonful of the basting material to each bun 15 minutes before removing from the oven.

BISCUITS WITH PRUNE OR RAISIN FILLING

1 cupful milk 1 cupful water 2 tablespoonfuls sugar 1 teaspoonful salt 3 tablespoonfuls fat 1 to 3 eggs 2 cakes compressed yeast 1/4 cupful lukewarm water Bread flour (about 7 cupfuls)

Heat the milk and water. Turn into a bowl and add the sugar, salt, and fat. Let the mixture stand until it is lukewarm in temperature. Mix the yeast with the lukewarm water and add it to the lukewarm milk mixture. Break the egg; beat the white and yolk separately. Add the egg to the other ingredients.

Through a sifter, add enough flour to knead. Knead and roll out on a floured board until about 1 inch in thickness. Cut into rounds with a biscuit cutter. Make a depression in the center of each biscuit, fill with prunes or raisins prepared as directed below.

Place the biscuits on greased pans, let them rise (in a warm place) until


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