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- The Antiquity of Man - 3/91 -


Borings in 1851-54. Ancient Mounds of the Valley of the Ohio. Their Antiquity. Sepulchral Mound at Santos in Brazil. Delta of the Mississippi. Ancient Human Remains in Coral Reefs of Florida. Changes in Physical Geography in the Human Period. Buried Canoes in Marine Strata near Glasgow. Upheaval since the Roman Occupation of the Shores of the Firth of Forth. Fossil Whales near Stirling. Upraised Marine Strata of Sweden on Shores of the Baltic and the Ocean. Attempts to compute their Age.

CHAPTER 4.

PLEISTOCENE PERIOD--BONES OF MAN AND EXTINCT MAMMALIA IN BELGIAN CAVERNS.

Earliest Discoveries in Caves of Languedoc of Human Remains with Bones of extinct Mammalia. Researches in 1833 of Dr. Schmerling in the Liege Caverns. Scattered Portions of Human Skeletons associated with Bones of Elephant and Rhinoceros. Distribution and probable Mode of Introduction of the Bones. Implements of Flint and Bone. Schmerling's Conclusions as to the Antiquity of Man ignored. Present State of the Belgian Caves. Human Bones recently found in Cave of Engihoul. Engulfed Rivers. Stalagmitic Crust. Antiquity of the Human Remains in Belgium how proved.

CHAPTER 5.

PLEISTOCENE PERIOD--FOSSIL HUMAN SKULLS OF THE NEANDERTHAL AND ENGIS CAVES.

Human Skeleton found in Cave near Dusseldorf. Its geological Position and probable Age. Its abnormal and ape-like Characters. Fossil Human Skull of the Engis Cave near Liege. Professor Huxley's Description of these Skulls. Comparison of each, with extreme Varieties of the native Australian Race. Range of Capacity in the Human and Simian Brains. Skull from Borreby in Denmark. Conclusions of Professor Huxley. Bearing of the peculiar Characters of the Neanderthal Skull on the Hypothesis of Transmutation.

CHAPTER 6.

PLEISTOCENE ALLUVIUM AND CAVE DEPOSITS WITH FLINT IMPLEMENTS.

General Position of Drift with extinct Mammalia in Valleys. Discoveries of M. Boucher de Perthes at Abbeville. Flint Implements found also at St. Acheul, near Amiens. Curiosity awakened by the systematic Exploration of the Brixham Cave. Flint Knives in same, with Bones of extinct Mammalia. Superposition of Deposits in the Cave. Visits of English and French Geologists to Abbeville and Amiens.

CHAPTER 7.

PEAT AND PLEISTOCENE ALLUVIUM OF THE VALLEY OF THE SOMME.

Geological Structure of the Valley of the Somme and of the surrounding Country. Position of Alluvium of different Ages. Peat near Abbeville. Its animal and vegetable Contents. Works of Art in Peat. Probable Antiquity of the Peat, and Changes of Level since its Growth began. Flint Implements of antique Type in older Alluvium. Their various Forms and great Numbers.

CHAPTER 8.

PLEISTOCENE ALLUVIUM WITH FLINT IMPLEMENTS OF THE VALLEY OF THE SOMME--concluded.

Fluvio-marine Strata, with Flint Implements, near Abbeville. Marine Shells in same. Cyrena fluminalis. Mammalia. Entire Skeleton of Rhinoceros. Flint Implements, why found low down in Fluviatile Deposits. Rivers shifting their Channels. Relative Ages of higher and lower-level Gravels. Section of Alluvium of St. Acheul. Two Species of Elephant and Hippopotamus coexisting with Man in France. Volume of Drift, proving Antiquity of Flint Implements. Absence of Human Bones in tool-bearing Alluvium, how explained. Value of certain Kinds of negative Evidence tested thereby. Human Bones not found in drained Lake of Haarlem.

CHAPTER 9.

WORKS OF ART IN PLEISTOCENE ALLUVIUM OF FRANCE AND ENGLAND.

Flint Implements in ancient Alluvium of the Basin of the Seine. Bones of Man and of extinct Mammalia in the Cave of Arcy. Extinct Mammalia in the Valley of the Oise. Flint Implement in Gravel of same Valley. Works of Art in Pleistocene Drift in Valley of the Thames. Musk Ox. Meeting of northern and southern Fauna. Migrations of Quadrupeds. Mammals of Mongolia. Chronological Relation of the older Alluvium of the Thames to the Glacial Drift. Flint Implements of Pleistocene Period in Surrey, Middlesex, Kent, Bedfordshire, and Suffolk.

CHAPTER 10.

CAVERN DEPOSITS, AND PLACES OF SEPULTURE OF THE PLEISTOCENE PERIOD.

Flint Implements in Cave containing Hyaena and other extinct Mammalia in Somersetshire. Caves of the Gower Peninsula in South Wales. Rhinoceros hemitoechus. Ossiferous Caves near Palermo. Sicily once part of Africa. Rise of Bed of the Mediterranean to the Height of three hundred Feet in the Human Period in Sardinia. Burial-place of Pleistocene Date of Aurignac in the South of France. Rhinoceros tichorhinus eaten by Man. M. Lartet on extinct Mammalia and Works of Art found in the Aurignac Cave. Relative Antiquity of the same considered.

CHAPTER 11.

AGE OF HUMAN FOSSILS OF LE PUY IN CENTRAL FRANCE AND OF NATCHEZ ON THE MISSISSIPPI DISCUSSED.

Question as to the Authenticity of the Fossil Man of Denise, near Le Puy-en-Velay, considered. Antiquity of the Human Race implied by that Fossil. Successive Periods of Volcanic Action in Central France. With what Changes in the Mammalian Fauna they correspond. The Elephas meridionalis anterior in Time to the Implement-bearing Gravel of St. Acheul. Authenticity of the Human Fossil of Natchez on the Mississippi discussed. The Natchez Deposit, containing Bones of Mastodon and Megalonyx, probably not older than the Flint Implements of St. Acheul.

CHAPTER 12.

ANTIQUITY OF MAN RELATIVELY TO THE GLACIAL PERIOD AND TO THE EXISTING FAUNA AND FLORA.

Chronological Relation of the Glacial Period, and the earliest known Signs of Man's Appearance in Europe. Series of Tertiary Deposits in Norfolk and Suffolk immediately antecedent to the Glacial Period. Gradual Refrigeration of Climate proved by the Marine Shells of successive Groups. Marine Newer Pliocene Shells of Northern Character near Woodbridge. Section of the Norfolk Cliffs. Norwich Crag. Forest Bed and Fluvio-marine Strata. Fossil Plants and Mammalia of the same. Overlying Boulder Clay and Contorted Drift. Newer freshwater Formation of Mundesley compared to that of Hoxne. Great Oscillations of Level implied by the Series of Strata in the Norfolk Cliffs. Earliest known Date of Man long subsequent to the existing Fauna and Flora.

CHAPTER 13.

CHRONOLOGICAL RELATIONS OF THE GLACIAL PERIOD AND THE EARLIEST SIGNS OF MAN'S APPEARANCE IN EUROPE.

Chronological Relations of the Close of the Glacial Period and the earliest geological Signs of the Appearance of Man. Effects of Glaciers and Icebergs in polishing and scoring Rocks. Scandinavia once encrusted with Ice like Greenland. Outward Movement of Continental Ice in Greenland. Mild Climate of Greenland in the Miocene Period. Erratics of Recent Period in Sweden. Glacial State of Sweden in the Pleistocene Period.


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