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- The Antiquity of Man - 4/91 -
Scotland formerly encrusted with Ice. Its subsequent Submergence and Re-elevation. Latest Changes produced by Glaciers in Scotland. Remains of the Mammoth and Reindeer in Scotch Boulder Clay. Parallel Roads of Glen Roy formed in Glacier Lakes. Comparatively modern Date of these Shelves.
CHRONOLOGICAL RELATIONS OF THE GLACIAL PERIOD AND THE EARLIEST SIGNS OF MAN'S APPEARANCE IN EUROPE--continued.
Signs of extinct Glaciers in Wales. Great Submergence of Wales during the Glacial Period proved by Marine Shells. Still greater Depression inferred from Stratified Drift. Scarcity of Organic Remains in Glacial Formations. Signs of extinct Glaciers in England. Ice Action in Ireland. Maps illustrating successive Revolutions in Physical Geography during the Pleistocene Period. Southernmost Extent of Erratics in England. Successive Periods of Junction and Separation of England, Ireland, and the Continent. Time required for these Changes. Probable Causes of the Upheaval and Subsidence of the Earth's Crust. Antiquity of Man considered in relation to the Age of the existing Fauna and Flora.
EXTINCT GLACIERS OF THE ALPS AND THEIR CHRONOLOGICAL RELATION TO THE HUMAN PERIOD.
Extinct Glaciers of Switzerland. Alpine Erratic Blocks on the Jura. Not transported by floating Ice. Extinct Glaciers of the Italian Side of the Alps. Theory of the Origin of Lake-Basins by the erosive Action of Glaciers considered. Successive phases in the Development of Glacial Action in the Alps. Probable Relation of these to the earliest known Date of Man. Correspondence of the same with successive Changes in the Glacial Condition of the Scandinavian and British Mountains. Cold Period in Sicily and Syria.
HUMAN REMAINS IN THE LOESS, AND THEIR PROBABLE AGE.
Nature, Origin, and Age of the Loess of the Rhine and Danube. Impalpable Mud produced by the Grinding Action of Glaciers. Dispersion of this Mud at the Period of the Retreat of the great Alpine Glaciers. Continuity of the Loess from Switzerland to the Low Countries. Characteristic Organic Remains not Lacustrine. Alpine Gravel in the Valley of the Rhine covered by Loess. Geographical Distribution of the Loess and its Height above the Sea. Fossil Mammalia. Loess of the Danube. Oscillations in the Level of the Alps and lower Country required to explain the Formation and Denudation of the Loess. More rapid Movement of the Inland Country. The same Depression and Upheaval might account for the Advance and Retreat of the Alpine Glaciers. Himalayan Mud of the Plains of the Ganges compared to European Loess. Human Remains in Loess near Maestricht, and their probable Antiquity.
POST-GLACIAL DISLOCATIONS AND FOLDINGS OF CRETACEOUS AND DRIFT STRATA IN THE ISLAND OF MOEN, IN DENMARK.
Geological Structure of the Island of Moen. Great Disturbances of the Chalk posterior in Date to the Glacial Drift, with Recent Shells. M. Puggaard's Sections of the Cliffs of Moen. Flexures and Faults common to the Chalk and Glacial Drift. Different Direction of the Lines of successive Movement, Fracture, and Flexure. Undisturbed Condition of the Rocks in the adjoining Danish Islands. Unequal Movements of Upheaval in Finmark. Earthquake of New Zealand in 1855. Predominance in all Ages of uniform Continental Movements over those by which the Rocks are locally convulsed.
THE GLACIAL PERIOD IN NORTH AMERICA.
Post-glacial Strata containing Remains of Mastodon giganteus in North America. Scarcity of Marine Shells in Glacial Drift of Canada and the United States. Greater southern Extension of Ice-action in North America than in Europe. Trains of Erratic Blocks of vast Size in Berkshire, Massachusetts. Description of their Linear Arrangement and Points of Departure. Their Transportation referred to Floating and Coast Ice. General Remarks on the Causes of former Changes of Climate at successive geological Epochs. Supposed Effects of the Diversion of the Gulf Stream in a Northerly instead of North-Easterly Direction. Development of extreme Cold on the opposite Sides of the Atlantic in the Glacial period not strictly simultaneous. Effect of Marine Currents on Climate. Pleistocene Submergence of the Sahara.
RECAPITULATION OF GEOLOGICAL PROOFS OF MAN'S ANTIQUITY.
Recapitulation of Results arrived at in the earlier Chapters. Ages of Stone and Bronze. Danish Peat and Kitchen-Middens. Swiss Lake-Dwellings. Local Changes in Vegetation and in the wild and domesticated Animals and in Physical Geography coeval with the Age of Bronze and the later Stone Period. Estimates of the positive Date of some Deposits of the later Stone Period. Ancient Division of the Age of Stone of St. Acheul and Aurignac. Migrations of Man in that Period from the Continent to England in Post-Glacial Times. Slow Rate of Progress in barbarous Ages. Doctrine of the superior Intelligence and Endowments of the original Stock of Mankind considered. Opinions of the Greeks and Romans, and their Coincidence with those of the Modern Progressionist.
THEORIES OF PROGRESSION AND TRANSMUTATION.
Antiquity and Persistence in Character of the existing Races of Mankind. Theory of their Unity of Origin considered. Bearing of the Diversity of Races on the Doctrine of Transmutation. Difficulty of defining the Terms "Species" and "Race." Lamarck's Introduction of the Element of Time into the Definition of a Species. His Theory of Variation and Progression. Objections to his Theory, how far answered. Arguments of modern Writers in favour of Progression in the Animal and Vegetable World. The old Landmarks supposed to indicate the first Appearance of Man, and of different Classes of Animals, found to be erroneous. Yet the Theory of an advancing Series of Organic Beings not inconsistent with Facts. Earliest known Fossil Mammalia of low Grade. No Vertebrata as yet discovered in the oldest Fossiliferous Rocks. Objections to the Theory of Progression considered. Causes of the Popularity of the Doctrine of Progression as compared to that of Transmutation.
ON THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES BY VARIATION AND NATURAL SELECTION.
Mr. Darwin's Theory of the Origin of Species by Natural Selection. Memoir by Mr. Wallace. Manner in which favoured Races prevail in the Struggle for Existence. Formation of new Races by breeding. Hypotheses of definite and indefinite Modifiability equally arbitrary. Competition and Extinction of Races. Progression not a necessary Accompaniment of Variation. Distinct Classes of Phenomena which Natural Selection explains. Unity of Type, Rudimentary Organs, Geographical Distribution, Relation of the extinct to the living Fauna and Flora, and mutual Relations of successive Groups of Fossil Forms. Light thrown on Embryological Development by Natural Selection. Why large Genera have more variable Species than small ones. Dr. Hooker on the Evidence afforded by the Vegetable Kingdom in favour of Creation by Variation. Steenstrup on alternation of Generations. How far the Doctrine of Independent Creation is opposed to the Laws now governing the Migration of Species.
OBJECTIONS TO THE HYPOTHESIS OF TRANSMUTATION CONSIDERED.
Statement of Objections to the Hypothesis of Transmutation founded on the Absence of Intermediate Forms. Genera of which the Species are closely allied. Occasional Discovery of the missing Links in a Fossil State. Davidson's Monograph on the Brachiopoda.
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