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- The Antiquity of Man - 5/91 -


Why the Gradational Forms, when found, are not accepted as Evidence of Transmutation. Gaps caused by Extinction of Races and Species. Vast Tertiary Periods during which this Extinction has been going on in the Fauna and Flora now existing. Genealogical Bond between Miocene and Recent Plants and Insects. Fossils of Oeningen. Species of Insects in Britain and North America represented by distinct Varieties. Falconer's Monograph on living and fossil Elephants. Fossil Species and Genera of the Horse Tribe in North and South America. Relation of the Pliocene Mammalia of North America, Asia, and Europe. Species of Mammalia, though less persistent than the Mollusca, change slowly. Arguments for and against Transmutation derived from the Absence of Mammalia in Islands. Imperfection of the Geological Record. Intercalation of newly discovered Formation of intermediate Age in the chronological Series. Reference of the St. Cassian Beds to the Triassic Periods. Discovery of new organic Types. Feathered Archaeopteryx of the Oolite.

CHAPTER 23.

ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF LANGUAGES AND SPECIES COMPARED.

Aryan Hypothesis and Controversy. The Races of Mankind change more slowly than their Languages. Theory of the gradual Origin of Languages. Difficulty of defining what is meant by a Language as distinct from a Dialect. Great Number of extinct and living Tongues. No European Language a Thousand Years old. Gaps between Languages, how caused. Imperfection of the Record. Changes always in Progress. Struggle for Existence between rival Terms and Dialects. Causes of Selection. Each Language formed slowly in a single Geographical Area. May die out gradually or suddenly. Once lost can never be revived. Mode of Origin of Languages and Species a Mystery. Speculations as to the Number of original Languages or Species unprofitable.

CHAPTER 24.

BEARING OF THE DOCTRINE OF TRANSMUTATION ON THE ORIGIN OF MAN, AND HIS PLACE IN THE CREATION.

Whether Man can be regarded as an Exception to the Rule if the Doctrine of Transmutation be embraced for the rest of the Animal Kingdom. Zoological Relations of Man to other Mammalia. Systems of Classification. Term Quadrumanous, why deceptive. Whether the Structure of the Human Brain entitles Man to form a distinct Sub-class of the Mammalia. Intelligence of the lower Animals compared to the Intellect and Reason of Man. Grounds on which Man has been referred to a distinct Kingdom of Nature. Immaterial Principle common to Man and Animals. Non-discovery of intermediate Links among Fossil Anthropomorphous Species. Hallam on the compound Nature of Man, and his Place in the Creation. Great Inequality of mental Endowment in different Human Races and Individuals developed by Variation and ordinary Generation. How far a corresponding Divergence in physical Structure may result from the Working of the same Causes. Concluding remarks.

NOTES.

(PLATES AND FIGURES.

PLATE 1. A VILLAGE BUILT ON PILES IN A SWISS LAKE.

FIGURE 1. SECTION OF THE NEANDERTHAL CAVE.

FIGURE 2. SIDE VIEW OF THE CAST OF PART OF A HUMAN SKULL FOUND BY DR. SCHMERLING EMBEDDED AMONGST THE REMAINS OF EXTINCT MAMMALIA IN THE CAVE OF ENGIS.

FIGURE 3. SIDE VIEW OF THE CAST OF A PART OF A HUMAN SKULL FROM A CAVE IN THE NEANDERTHAL.

FIGURE 4. OUTLINE OF THE SKULL OF AN ADULT CHIMPANZEE, OF THAT FROM THE NEANDERTHAL, AND OF THAT OF A EUROPEAN.

FIGURE 5. SKULL ASSOCIATED WITH GROUND FLINT IMPLEMENTS.

FIGURE 6. OUTLINES OF THE SKULL FROM THE NEANDERTHAL, OF AN AUSTRALIAN SKULL FROM PORT ADELAIDE, AND OF THE SKULL FROM THE CAVE OF ENGIS.

FIGURE 7. SECTION ACROSS THE VALLEY OF THE SOMME IN PICARDY.

FIGURE 8. FLINT IMPLEMENT FROM ST. ACHEUL, NEAR AMIENS, OF THE SPEAR-HEAD SHAPE.

FIGURE 9. OVAL-SHAPED FLINT HATCHET FROM MAUTORT.

FIGURE 10. FLINT TOOL FROM ST. ACHEUL.

FIGURES 11, 12 AND 13. DENDRITES ON SURFACES OF FLINT HATCHETS IN THE DRIFT OF ST. ACHEUL.

FIGURE 14. FLINT KNIFE OR FLAKE FROM BELOW THE SAND CONTAINING Cyrena fluminalis.

FIGURE 15. FOSSILS OF THE WHITE CHALK.

FIGURE 16. SECTION OF FLUVIO-MARINE STRATA, CONTAINING FLINT IMPLEMENTS AND BONES OF EXTINCT MAMMALIA.

FIGURE 17. Cyrena fluminalis, O.F. Muller, sp.

FIGURE 18. Elephas primigenius.

FIGURE 19. Elephas antiquus, Falconer.

FIGURE 20. Elephas meridionalis, Nesti.

FIGURE 21. SECTION OF GRAVEL PIT CONTAINING FLINT IMPLEMENTS AT ST. ACHEUL.

FIGURE 22. CONTORTED FLUVIATILE STRATA AT ST. ACHEUL.

FIGURE 23. SECTION ACROSS THE VALLEY OF THE OUSE.

FIGURE 24. SECTION SHOWING THE POSITION OF THE FLINT WEAPONS AT HOXNE.

FIGURE 25. SECTION OF PART OF THE HILL OF FAJOLES.

FIGURE 26. SECTION THROUGH THE ALLUVIAL PLAIN OF THE MISSISSIPPI.

FIGURE 27. DIAGRAM TO ILLUSTRATE THE GENERAL SUCCESSION OF THE STRATA IN THE NORFOLK CLIFFS.

FIGURE 28. Cyclas (Pisidium) amnica var.(?)

FIGURE 29. CLIFF 50 FEET HIGH BETWEEN BACTON GAP AND MUNDESLEY.

FIGURE 30. FOLDING OF THE STRATA BETWEEN EAST AND WEST RUNTON.

FIGURE 31. SECTION OF CONCENTRIC BEDS WEST OF CROMER.

FIGURE 32. INCLUDED PINNACLE OF CHALK AT OLD HYTHE POINT.

FIGURE 33. SECTION OF THE NEWER FRESH-WATER FORMATION IN THE CLIFFS AT MUNDESLEY.

FIGURE 34. Paludina marginata, Michaud (P. minuta, Strickland). Hydrobia marginata.

FIGURE 35. OVAL AND FLATTISH PEBBLES.

PLATE 2. VIEW OF THE MOUTHS OF GLEN ROY AND GLEN SPEAN.

FIGURE 36. MAP OF THE PARALLEL ROADS OF GLEN ROY.

FIGURE 37. SECTION THROUGH SIDE OF LOCH.

FIGURE 38. DOME-SHAPED ROCKS, OR "ROCHES MOUTONEES."

FIGURE 39. MAP OF THE BRITISH ISLES AND PART OF THE NORTH-WEST OF EUROPE, SHOWING THE GREAT AMOUNT OF SUPPOSED SUBMERGENCE OF LAND BENEATH THE SEA DURING PART OF THE GLACIAL PERIOD.

FIGURE 40. MAP SHOWING WHAT PARTS OF THE BRITISH ISLANDS WOULD REMAIN ABOVE WATER AFTER A SUBSIDENCE OF THE AREA TO THE EXTENT OF 600 FEET.

FIGURE 41. MAP OF PART OF THE NORTH-WEST OF EUROPE, INCLUDING THE BRITISH ISLES, SHOWING THE EXTENT OF SEA WHICH WOULD BECOME LAND IF THERE WERE A GENERAL RISE OF THE AREA TO THE EXTENT OF 600 FEET.

FIGURE 42. MAP SHOWING THE SUPPOSED COURSE OF THE ANCIENT AND NOW EXTINCT GLACIER OF THE RHONE.

FIGURE 43. MAP OF THE MORAINES OF EXTINCT GLACIERS EXTENDING FROM THE ALPS INTO THE PLAINS OF THE PO NEAR TURIN.

FIGURE 44. Succinea oblonga.

FIGURE 45. Pupa muscorum.

FIGURE 46. Helix hispida, Lin.; H. plebeia, Drap.

FIGURE 47. SOUTHERN EXTREMITY OF MOENS KLINT.


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