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- The Evolution of Expression Vol. I - 1/20 -


EVOLUTION OF EXPRESSION

BY CHARLES WESLEY EMERSON

FOUNDER OF EMERSON COLLEGE OF ORATORY, BOSTON

A COMPILATION OF SELECTIONS ILLUSTRATING THE FOUR STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT IN ART AS APPLIED TO ORATORY IN FOUR VOLUMES, WITH KEY TO EACH CHAPTER

THIRTY-THIRD EDITION

VOLUME I--REVISED

TO MY STUDENTS Whose need has been my inspiration and whose understanding my rich reward, these volumes are affectionately DEDICATED

CONTENTS.

INTRODUCTION ANIMATION ANALYSIS SMOOTHNESS VOLUME FORMING THE ELEMENTS

CHAPTER I.

THE TEA-KETTLE AND THE CRICKET Charles Dickens THE PIED PIPER OF HAMELIN Robert Browning GROUP OF LYRICS: PIPPA PASSES Robert Browning THE SNOWDROP Alfred Tennyson THE THROSTLE Alfred Tennyson ONE MORNING, OH, SO EARLY Jean Ingelow FREEDOM John Ruskin A LAUGHING CHORUS THE CHEERFUL LOCKSMITH Charles Dickens HOME THOUGHTS FROM ABROAD Robert Browning LOCHINVAR Sir Walter Scott THE POLISH WAR SONG James G. Percival

CHAPTER II.

THE VILLAGE PREACHER Oliver Goldsmith TO THE DAISY William Wordsworth PSALM XXIII David EXTRACT FROM EULOGY ON WENDELL PHILLIPS George William Curtis THE BROOK Alfred Tennyson OLD AUNT MARY'S James Whitcomb Riley

CHILD VERSE: MY SHADOW Robert Louis Stevenson THE SWING Robert Louis Stevenson THE LAMPLIGHTER Robert Louis Stevenson WAITING John Burroughs

CHAPTER III.

THE REVENGE Alfred Tennyson THE OCEAN Lord Byron SPARTACUS TO THE GLADIATORS AT CAPUA Rev. Elijah Kellogg TELL TO HIS NATIVE MOUNTAINS, James Sheridan Knowles BATTLE HYMN Karl Theodor Korner SELF-RELIANCE Ralph Waldo Emerson ADAMS AND JEFFERSON Daniel Webster THE DEFENCE OF LUCKNOW Alfred Tennyson

SONNETS:

KEATS

WORDSWORTH

MILTON

ELIZABETH BARRETT BROWNING IS THERE FOR HONEST POVERTY Robert Burns

CHAPTER IV.

HAMLET TO THE PLAYERS William Shakespeare

THE BOY AND THE ANGEL Robert Browning

SPEECH AND SILENCE Thomas Carlyle THE RICH MAN AND THE POOR MAN Khemnitzer

GATHERING OF THE FAIRIES Joseph Rodman Drake

THE SONG OF THE RAIN Spectator

HEARTY READING Sidney Smith

IVRY Lord Macaulay

THE DAFFODILS William Wordsworth

CHEERFULNESS J. H. Friswell

APRIL IN THE HILLS Archibald Lampman

INTRODUCTION.

Teach me, then, To fashion worlds in little, making form, As God does, one with spirit,--be the priest Who makes God into bread to feed the world. --Richard Hovey.

The revised edition of the "Evolution of Expression" is issued in response to frequent requests from teachers and students for a formulation of those principles upon which natural methods in the teaching of expression are based. It is hoped that the brief explanatory text introducing each chapter may aid teacher and pupil to avoid arbitrary standards and haphazard efforts, substituting in their place, psychological law. Growth in expression is not a matter of chance; the teacher who understands nature's laws and rests upon them, setting no limit to the potentialities of his pupil, waits not in vain for results.

No printed text, however, can take the place of a discerning teacher. A knowledge of the philosophy of education in expression avails little without the ability to create the genial atmosphere conducive to the development of the student. The teacher is the gardener, his service--his full service--is to surround the young plant with favorable conditions of light and soil and atmosphere; then stand out of its way while it unfolds its full blossom and final fruitage.

The tendency of modern education is towards the discovery and perfection of methods. The thought of leading educators is turned from the what to the how; to the development of systems of progressive steps through which the pupil may be led to a realization of himself. This trend is best shown in the multiplicity and excellence of recent pedagogical treatises and in the appearance of carefully graded and progressive text-books. The ancients believed that their heroes were born of gods and goddesses. They knew of no means by which the mind could be developed to the compass of greatness. The ancient theory to account for greatness was preternatural birth; the modern theory is evolution. To-day the interest of the child is awakened, his mind is aroused, and then led onward in regular steps.

The study of all forms of art, so far as methods are concerned, should be progressive. For correct guidance in our search for the best methods, we must understand the order of the development of the human mind. A child, before he arrives at an age where he can be taught definitely, is simply a little palpitating mass of animation. Soon he begins to show an attraction toward surrounding objects. Next he begins to show a greater attraction for some things than for others. His hands clutch at and retain certain objects. He now enters the period of development where he makes selections, and thus is born the power of choice. Objects which, at first, appeared to him as a mass now begin to stand out clearly one from another; to become more and more differentiated, while the child begins to separate and to compare. Thus the brain of the child passes through the successive stages from simple animation to attraction, to selection or choice, to separation or analysis. This principle of evolution, operating along the same lines, is found in the race as in the individual. In all man's work he has but recorded his own life or evolution. All history, all religions, all governments, all forms of art bring their testimony to this truth, and in each the scholar may find these successive stages of development.

In the age of Phidias the art of sculpture reached its maturity. No race and no people have ever surpassed the consummate achievements of that period. But this perfection was the result of a process of evolution. There had been graduated steps, and those same steps must to-day be taken in the education of the artist. Art had passed into its second period before authentic Greek history began. The first stage was shown in that nation so justly called the "Mother of Arts and Sciences." In Egypt we find probably the first real manifestations of mind in art forms. They are colossal exhibitions of energy, such as the Temple of Thebes, seven hundred feet in length, statues seventy feet tall, monuments rearing their heads almost five hundred feet in air.

"Those temples, palaces, and piles stupendous Of which the very ruins are tremendous."


The Evolution of Expression Vol. I - 1/20

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