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- More Letters of Charles Darwin Volume II - 90/133 -


Barbs, see Pigeons.

Bardfield Oxlip (Primula elatior).

Barnacles, Darwin's work on. -metamorphosis in. -F. Muller on. -nomenclature. -of Secondary Period. -advance in. -complemental males compared with plants.

Barneoud, on irregular flowers.

"Baronne Prevost," Rivers on the rose.

Barrande, Joachim (died 1883): devoted himself to the investigation of the Palaeozoic fossils of Bohemia, his adopted country. His greatest work was the "Systeme Silurien de la Boheme," of which twenty-two volumes were published before his death. He was awarded the Wollaston Medal of the Geological Society in 1855. Barrande propounded the doctrine of "colonies." He found that in the Silurian strata of Bohemia, containing a normal succession of fossils, exceptional bands occurred which yielded fossils characteristic of a higher zone. He named these bands "colonies," and explained their occurrence by supposing that the later fauna represented in these "precursory bands" had already appeared in a neighbouring region, and that by some means communication was opened at intervals between this region and that in which the normal Silurian series was being deposited. This apparent intercalation of younger among older zones has now been accounted for by infoldings and faulting of the strata. See J.E. Marr, "On the Pre- Devonian Rocks of Bohemia," "Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc." Volume XXXVI., page 591 (1880); also "Defense des Colonies," by J. Barrande (Prag, 1861), and Geikie's "Text-book of Geology" (1893), page 773. -candidature for Royal medal. -candidate for Royal Society foreign list. -work on Colonies. -Lyell on work of.

Barriers to plant distribution in America.

Barrow, on Emberiza longicauda. -"Travels in S. Africa."

Barrow, Sir J., connection with naval expeditions.

Barrow, germination of seeds from a.

Bartlett, Abraham Dee (1812-97): was resident superintendent of the Zoological Society's Gardens in Regent's Park from 1859 to 1897. He communicated several papers to the Zoological Society. His knowledge was always at the service of Mr. Darwin, who had a sincere respect for him. -letters to.

Barton, on trees of N. America.

Basalt, association with granite. -separation of trachyte and.

Basques, H. Christy on the. -Hooker on Finns and.

Bastian, "The Beginnings of Life."

Bat, natural selection and increase in size of wings.

Bates, Henry Walter (1825-92): was born at Leicester, and after an apprenticeship in a hosiery business he became a clerk in Allsopp's brewery. He did not remain long in this uncongenial position, for in 1848 he embarked for Para with Mr. Wallace, whose acquaintance he had made at Leicester some years previously. Mr. Wallace left Brazil after four years' sojourn, and Bates remained for seven more years. He suffered much ill- health and privation, but in spite of adverse circumstances he worked unceasingly: witness the fact that his collection of insects numbered 14,000 specimens. He became Assistant Secretary to the Royal Geographical Society in 1864, a post which he filled up to the time of his death in 1892. In Mr. Clodd's interesting memoir prefixed to his edition of the "Naturalist on the Amazons," 1892, the editor pays a warm and well-weighed tribute to Mr. Bates's honourable and lovable personal character. See also "Life and Letters," II., page 380. -"A Naturalist on the Amazons." -Darwin's opinion of his work. -on insect fauna of Amazon Valley. -on lepidoptera of Amazons. -letter from Hooker to. -letters to. -letter to Hooker from. -Darwin reviews paper by. -on flower of Monochaetum. -on insects of Chili. -supplies Darwin with facts for sexual selection.

Bateson, Miss A., on cross fertilisation in inconspicuous flowers.

Bateson, W., on breeding lepidoptera in confinement. -Mendel's "Principles of Heredity."

Batrachians, Kollmann on rudimentary digits.

Bauer, F., drawings by.

Bauhinia, sleep-movements of leaves.

Beaches, S. American raised.

"Beagle" (H.M.S.), circumstance of Darwin joining. -Darwin's views on species when on. -FitzRoy and voyage of. -return of. -voyage.

Beans, holes bitten by bees in flowers. -extra-floral nectaries of.

Bear, comparison with whale. -modification of.

Beaton, Donald (1802-63): Biographical notices in the "Journal of Horticulture" and the "Cottage Gardener," XIII., page 153, and "Journ. Hort." 1863, pages 349 and 415, are referred to in Britten & Boulger's "Biographical Index of Botanists," 1893. Dr. Masters tells us that Beaton had a "first-rate reputation as a practical gardener, and was esteemed for his shrewdness and humour." -Darwin on work of. -on Pelargonium.

Beatson, on land birds in S. Helena.

Beaufort.

Beaufort, Captain, asks Darwin for information as to collecting.

Beaumont, Elie de (1798-1874): was a pupil in the Ecole Polytechnique and afterwards in the Ecole des Mines. In 1820 he accompanied M. Brochant de Villiers to England in order to study the principles of geological mapping, and to report on the English mines and metallurgical establishments. For several years M. de Beaumont was actively engaged in the preparation of the geological map of France, which was begun in 1825, and in 1835 he succeeded M. B. de Villiers in the Chair of Geology at the Ecole des Mines. In 1853 he was elected Perpetual Secretary of the French Academy, and in 1861 he became Vice-President of the Conseil General des Mines and a Grand Officer of the Legion of Honour. Elie de Beaumont is best known among geologists as the author of the "Systemes des Montagnes" and other publications, in which he put forward his theories on the origin of mountain ranges and on kindred subjects. ("Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc." Volume XXXI.; "Proc." page xliii, 1875.) -on lines of elevation. -on elevation in Cordilleras. -elevation-crater theory. -Darwin's disbelief in views and work of. -on lava and dykes. -Lyell's refutation of his theory. -measurement of natural inclination of lava-streams.

Beauty, criticism by J. Morley of Darwin's phraseology in regard to. -discussion on. -lepidoptera and display of. -Wallace on. -Darwin's discussion on origin. -in female animals. -in plumage of male and female birds. -of seeds and fruits. -Shaw on. -standards of.

Bedford, flint implements found near.

Beech, in Chonos I. -in T. del Fuego and Chili. -Miquel on distribution.

Bee-Ophrys (Ophrys apifera), see Bee-Orchis.

Bee-Orchis, Darwin's experiments on crossing. -fertilisation. -self-fertilisation. -intermediate forms between Ophrys arachnites and.

Bees, combs. -Haughton on cells of. -and instinct. -referred to in "Descent of Man." -New Zealand clover and. -acquisition of power of building cells. -Darwin's observations on. -agents in fertilisation of papilionaceous flowers. -as pollen collectors. -difference between sexes. -H. Muller on. -and parthenogenesis. -regular lines of flight at Down.

Beet, graft-hybrids.

Beete-Jukes, alluded to in De la Beche's presidential address.

Beetles, bivalves distributed by. -Forel's work on. -nest-inhabiting. -stag-.


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