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- Young's Demonstrative Translation of Scientific Secrets - 1/36 -
Produced by Andrew Sly.
This is an adaption of the electronic transcription made by Paul Hubbs and Bob Gravonic. Using microfiche of the original (Canadian Institute for Historical Microreproductions no. 42355) as a copy-text, I've made corrections and added a considerable amount of material. Irregular spellings in the original have been retained. Explanatory remarks regarding numbering are enclosed in square brackets.
Young's Demonstrative Translation of Scientific Secrets;
A Collection of Above 500 Useful Receipts on a Variety of Subjects.
Printed by Rowsell & Ellis, Toronto, 1861.
The object of the present work is clearly announced in its title. It is to collect within a small compass the instructions of experimental knowledge upon a great variety of subjects which relate to the present interests of man. It contains above five hundred genuine and practical receipts, which have been compiled by the publisher with extreme difficulty and expense. A reference to the list of subjects which the work contains, will show that the publisher's researches have been extensive, while a comparison of the work with others of the same general character evinces patient labour, and cannot fail to give it pre-eminence. While the track pursued is not new, it is more thorough, and more easily followed than that marked out by any previous compiler known to myself. The work contains not merely the outlines on the subjects to which it refers, but, what appears to my own mind one of its excellences, the full and clear explanations of these subjects. To all classes of people, without exception, the work is of great value. It is fit, on every account, that the publisher should be encouraged in this production. The work is worthy the acceptance of all, and one which every man may prize.
1. ORIENTAL PAINTING
Any bunch of roses or flowers, or anything of the kind that you admire, take the pattern of by placing them against a light of window glass, then lay a piece of white paper over them, and through the latter you will see the roses, &c. Now with a lead pencil take the pattern of the roses, &c., on the paper; when you have them all marked, cut then out with a scissors, so that you have a complete pattern of them. Now take a piece of glass, whatever size your pattern requires, stick the pattern on it with wafers, then paint the glass all over, except where the pattern covers, with black paint, composed of refined lampblack, black enamel, copel varnish and turpentine, mixed. Now let this dry, then take off your patterns and paint your roses, flowers, &c., with tube paints, mixed with demar varnish, so that your roses, &c., may be, in a manner, transparent. Paint your large roses red, some of the smaller ones yellow, or any colour to suit your taste. Paint one side of the leaves a darker shade of green than the other, which will make the picture appear as though the sun was shining on it. When this painting is dry, take silver or gold foil, (gold is best,) wrinkle it up in your hand then nearly straighten it, and cover the back of the glass all over with it; over the large roses let the wrinkles be larger, over the small ones smaller, &c.; then lay a piece of stiff paper, the size of the glass, over the foil, and a piece of very thin board again over this; have it framed in this manner and it is completed. You now have one of the richest of paintings, which is commonly taught at a cost of $5. You may buy all you require for this painting at the druggist's.
2. TRANSFER PAINTING ON GLASS
This is for transferring any picture plate you please to glass, to be framed. First give the glass a coat of demar varnish; let it remain for eight hours, or until dry; at this time have your picture thoroughly soaked in warm water; then give the glass another coat of demar varnish, and take the picture out of the water; then let it and the glass remain for twenty minutes, by which time the water will be struck in from the face of the picture, after which you will place the front of the picture on the varnished glass, (avoiding wrinkles and spots of water,) press it well on until every part is stuck fast, then carefully rub the paper all away to a mere film; give the glass then, over this film, another coat of demar varnish, which will make the film transparent; let it dry; then place the glass, with the varnished side towards you, between you and the light, and you will see the outlines of the picture quite distinctly; you may then paint on the back with tube paints, mixed with a little demar varnish to assist in drying, to suit your taste. For instance, if the picture is that of a lady, you may paint the dress red, the shawl or cape, as it may be, blue, the face flesh colour, (which colour may be made by mixing a little red with white,) the bonnet scarlet, the shoes black; if trees, have them green, &c. All you want for this painting you may also buy at the druggist's. This painting is very simple and elegant, it is commonly taught at a cost of $3. Try it, you cannot fail.
3. TRANSFER VARNISH
Take of Canada balsam 3 drachms; gum sandric 3 drachms; spirits of wine 1/2 pint. Dissolve the balsam and gum in the spirits of wine and it is ready for use.
4. WHITE SPIRIT VARNISH--THE VERY BEST.
Take of gum sandrack 4 ounces; mastic 1 ounce; Elmi rosin 1/2 ounce; Venice turpentine 1 ounce; alcohol 15 ounces. Digest in a bottle, frequently shaking, till the gums are dissolved, and it is ready for use.
5. TRANSFER PAINTING ON WOOD
By this you may transfer any picture you please from paper to a cutter back, or any other substance you please. Give the board three coats of white spirit varnish, receipt No. 4; damp the back of the print with strong vinegar; give the front a very heavy coat of the transfer varnish, receipt No. 3; then press it on the board, avoiding creases; when perfectly dry and fast, rub the paper away; the print is indelibly fixed; then varnish it over as you would any other painting. This receipt has been commonly sold for $5.
6. ELECTRO GOLD PLATING--NEW METHOD
Take 100 grams of laminated gold, mixed with 20 grams of hydrochloric acid; 10 grams of nitric acid; the liquid thus composed is placed over a moderate fire, and stirred constantly until the gold passes into the state of chlorine; it is then allowed to cool. A second liquid is formed by dissolving 60 grams of cyanide of potassium in 80 grams of distilled waters; the two liquids are mixed together in a decanter and stirred for 20 minutes, and then filtered. Finally 100 grams of whiting, dry and sifted, are mixed with 5 grams of pulverised supertartrate of potass; this new powder is dissolved in a portion of the above described liquid, in sufficient quantity to form a paste of the proper consistency to be spread with a pencil on the article or part to be gilded. The superabundant powder is then removed by washing and the article is beautifully gilded with a heavy or light coat, according to the quantity of paste used. Grams belong to French weights, four grams are a little more than one drachm.
7. ELECTRO SILVERING--NEW METHOD
10 grams of nitrate of silver are dissolved in 50 grams of distilled water; then 25 grams of cyanide of potassium in 50 grams of distilled water; the two liquids are mixed in a decanter, and stirred for 10 minutes; it is then filtered. Finally, 100 grams of sifted whiting are mixed with 10 grams of pulverised supertartrate of potass and one gram of mercury. This powder and dissolving liquid are used in the same manner as in the above method of gold plating. These excellent methods of silvering and gilding were discovered in June 1860, by the great French chemist Baldooshong of Paris France. It is far superior to any other method ever discovered, and will eventually take the place of all.
8. ELECTRO GOLD PLATING--USUAL METHOD
Take a $2 50c. piece of gold, and put it into a mixture of 1 ounce of nitric and 4 ounces of muriatic acids, (glass vessels only are to be used in this work,) when it is all cut dissolve 1/2 an ounce of sulphate of potash in one pint of pure rain water, and mix the gold solution, stirring well; then let stand and the gold will be thrown down; then pour off the acid fluid, and wash the gold in two or three waters, or until no acid is tasted by touching the tongue to the gold. Now dissolve one ounce of cyanuret of potassium in one pint of pure rain water, to which add the gold, and it is ready to use. Clear the article to be plated from all dirt and grease with whiting and a good brush; if there are cracks it may be necessary to put the article in a solution of caustic potash. At all events every particle of dirt and grease must be removed; then suspend the article in the cyanuret of gold solution, with a small strip of zinc cut about the width of a common knitting needle, hooking the top over a stick which will reach across the top of the vessel or bottle holding the solution. If the zinc is too large the deposit will be made so fast that it will scale off. The slower the plating goes on the better, and this is arranged by the size if the zinc used. When
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