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- Ancient China Simplified - 2/61 -
SUNG: principality taking in the four corners of Ho Nan, Shan Tung, An Hwei, and Kiang Su (Shang dynasty family).
CH'ÊN: principality in Ho Nan, south of Sung (family of the Ploughman Emperor, 2250 B.C., preceding even the Hia dynasty).
WEI: principality taking in corners of Ho Nan, Chih Li, and Shan Tung (family of the Chou emperors).
TS'AO: principality in South-west Shan Tung; neighbour of Lu, Wei, and Sung (same family as Chou).
TS'AI: principality in Ho Nan, south of CH'ÊN (same family as Chou).
LU: principality in South-west Shan Tung, between Ts'ao and Ts'i (its founder was the brother of the Chou founder).
HÜ: very small principality in Ho Nan, south of Cheng (same obscure eastern ancestry as Ts'i),
K'I: Shan Tung promontory and German sphere (of Hia dynasty descent); it is often confused with, or is quite the same as, another principality called _Ki_ (without the aspirate).
The above are practically all the states whose participation in Chinese development has been historically of importance,
NAMES OF CHIEF PERSONAGES
CONFUCIUS: after 500 B.C. premier of Lu; traced his descent back through the Chou dynasty vassal ruling family of Sung to the Shang dynasty family.
TSZ-CH'AN: elder contemporary of Confucius; premier of Cheng; traced his descent through the vassal ruling family of Cheng to the Chou dynasty family: date of death variously stated.
KWAN-TSE: died between 648 and 643 B.C., variously stated; premier of Ts'i; traced his descent to the same clan as the ruling dynasty of Chou.
YEN-TSZ: died 500 B.C.; premier of Ts'i; traced his descent to a local clan, apparently eastern barbarian by origin.
WEI YANG: died 338 B.C.; premier of Ts'in; was a concubine-born prince of the vassal state of Wei, and was thus of the imperial Chou dynasty clan.
SHUH HIANG: lawyer and minister of Tsin; belonged to one of the "great families" of Tsin; was contemporary with Tsz-ch'an. HIANG SÜH: diplomat of the state of Sung; pedigree not ascertained,
KI-CHAH: son, brother, and uncle of successive barbarian kings of Wu, whose ancestors, however, were the same ancestors as the orthodox imperial rulers of the Chou dynasty; contemporary of Tsz- ch'an.
NAMES OF THE SO-CALLED "FIVE PROTECTORS"
(ONLY THE TWO FIRST OF THE FIVE WERE SO OFFICIALLY; THE TWO LAST WERE SO, EVEN OFFICIALLY, THOUGH NEVER COUNTED AMONGST THE FIVE.)
1. MARQUESS OF Ts'i (not of imperial Chou clan, perhaps of "Eastern Barbarian" origin).
2. MARQUESS OF TSIN (imperial Chou clan).
3. DUKE OF SUNG (imperial Shang dynasty descent),
4. "KING" OF T'SU (semi-barbarian, but with remote imperial Chinese legendary descent).
5. EARL OF TS'IN (semi-Tartar, with legendary descent from remote imperial Chinese).
6. "KING" OF Wu (semi-barbarian, but of imperial Chou family descent).
7. "KING" OF YÜEH (barbarian, but with legendary descent from ultra-remote imperial Chinese).
Beginning of dated history--Size of ancient China--Parcelled out into fiefs--Fiefs correspond to modern _hien_ districts-- Mesne lords and sub-vassals--Method of migration and colonizing-- Course of the Yellow River in 842 B.C.--Distant fiefs in Shan Tung and Chih Li provinces of to-day--A river which subsequently became part of the Grand Canal--The Hwai River system of waters-- Europeans always regard China from the sea inwards--Corea, Japan, and Liao Tung unknown in 842 B.C. except, perhaps, to the vassal state in Peking plain--Orthodox Chinese adopting barbarian usages in Shan Tung--Eastern barbarians on the coast to Shanghai--No knowledge of South or West Asia--Left bank of Yellow River was mostly Tartar, except in South Shan Si--Ancient capital in Shan Si--Ancient colonization of the Wei River valleys in Shen Si-- Possibilities of Western ideas having been carried by Tartar horsemen from Persia and Turkestan--Traditions of western, eastern, and southern intercourse previous to 842 B.C.--Early knowledge of the River Yang-tsz and its three mouths--Explorations by ancient emperors--Development of China followed much the same normal course as that of Greece or England.
Character of the early colonizing Chinese satraps--Revolt of the western satrap and flight of the Emperor in 842 B.C.--Daughter of a later satrap marries the Emperor--Tartars mix up with questions of imperial succession and kill the Emperor--Transfer of the imperial metropolis from Shen Si to Ho Nan--The Chou dynasty, dating from 1122 B.C.--Before its conquest, the vassal house of Chou occupied the same relation to the imperial dynasty of Shang that the Wardens of the Western Marches, or Princes of Ts'in, did in turn to the imperial dynasty of Chou--The Shang dynasty had in 1766 B.C., for like reasons, supplanted the Hia dynasty-No events of great interest recorded in limited area of China before 771 B.C.--Decline of the imperial power until its extinction in 250 B.C.--The Five Tyrant or Protector period--Natural movement to keep pace with political development--Easier system of writing-- Development of trade and industry--Living interests clash with extinct aspirations--From 722 B.C. to 480 B.C. is the period of change covered by Confucius' history
_THE NORTHERN POWERS_
The state of Tsin in Shan Si--In 771 B.C.: its ruler escorts the Emperor to his new capital--Only in 671 B.C. does Confucius mention Tsin--Divided from Ts'in by the Yellow River--Important difference between the sounds Tsin and Ts'in--Importance of the whole Yellow River as a natural boundary--The state of Ts'i also engaged in buffer work against Tartar inroads--Remote origin of Ts'i-Ts'in, Tsin, and Ts'i grow powerful as the Emperor grows weaker--The state of Yen in the Peking plain--The founder of Yen immortalized in song--Complete absence of tradition concerning Yen's origin--Its possible relations with Corea and Japan--Centre of political gravity transferred for ever to the north--Tartar movements in Asia generally 800-600 B.C.--Never was a Tarter empire--Reason for using the loose word "Tartars"--Race divisions then probably very much as now--Attempt to classify the Tartars in definite groups--Ch'wan unknown by any name--Nothing at all was known in China of the north and west: _á fortiori_ of Central Asia
_THE SOUTHERN POWER_
The collapse of the Emperor led to restlessness in the south too-- The Jungle country south of the River Han--Ancient origin of its kings--Claim to equality--Buffer state to the south--Ruling caste consisted of educated Chinese--Extension of the Ts'u empire-- Annamese connections--Claims repeated 704 B.C.--Capital moved to King-thou Fu near Sha-shï--First Ts'u conquests of China--Five hundred years of struggle with Ts'in for the possession of all China
_EVIDENCE OF ECLIPSES_
How far is history true?--Confucius and eclipses--Evidence notwithstanding the destruction of literature in 213 B.C.-- Retrospective calculations of eclipses and complications of calendars--Eclipse of 776 B.C.--Errors in Confucian history owing to rival calendars
Paraphernalia of warfare--Ten thousand and one thousand chariot states--Use of war-chariots, leather or wood--Chariots allotted according to rank--Seventy-five men to one cart--War-chariots date back to 1800 B.C.--Tartar house-carts--Rivers mostly unnavigable in north--Introduction of canals and boat traffic--Population and armies--Vague descriptions--Early armies never exceeded 75,000 men--The use of flags--Used in hunting as well as in war--Victims sacrificed to drums--A modern instance of this in 1900 A.D.
_THE COAST STATES_
The coast states in possession of the Yang-tsz delta--The state of Wu really of the same origin as the imperial dynasty of Chou--
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