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- Ancient China Simplified - 4/61 -


connection with Confucius--What were his practical objects?-- Authorities in support of what Confucius' Annals tell us--Original conception of natural religion--Spread of the earliest patriarchal Chinese state--No other people near them possessed letters--The way in which the Chinese spread--Lines of least resistance--The spiritual emperor compared with some of the Popes--Lu's spiritual position--Confucius of Sung descent, and at first not an influential official in Lu--Lu's humiliation--Ts'i's intrigues to counteract Confucius' genius--Travels of Confucius and his history--His edited works.

CHAPTER XX

_LAW_

Original notion of law--War and punishment on a level--Secondary punishments--Judgment given as each breach occurs--No distinction between legislative and judicial--Private rights ignored by the State--Public weal is Nature's law--First law reform for the Hundred Families--Dr. Legge's translation of the Code-- Proclamation of the Emperor's laws--Themistes or decisions-- Capricious instances: boiling alive by Emperor--Interference of Emperor in Lu succession--Tsang Wen-chung's coat--Barbarity of the Ts'u laws--Lu's influence with the Emperor--Tsin's engraved laws--Tsz-ch'an's laws on metal in Cheng--Confucius disapproves of published law--English judge-made law--All rulers accepted Chou law--Reading law over sacrificial victim--Laconic ancient laws-- Command emanates from the north--Definition of imperial power--The laws of Li K'wei in Ngwei state (part of old Tsin)--Direct influence on modern law.

CHAPTER XXI

_PUBLIC WORKS_

Engineering works of old Emperors--Marvellous chiselled gorge above Tch'ang--Pa and Shuh kingdoms (= Sz Ch'wan)--The engineer Li Ping in Sz Ch'wan: his sluices still in working order after 2200 years of use--Chinese ideas about the sources of the Yang-tsz--The Lolo country and its independence--The Yellow River and its vagaries--Substitution of the Chou dynasty for the Shang dynasty-- First rulers of Wu make a canal--Origin of the Grand Canal-- Explanation of the old riverine system of Shan Tung--Extension of the Canal by the First August Emperor--Kublai Khan's share in it-- The old Wu capital--Soochow and its ancient arsenals--No bridges in old clays: fords used--Instances--Limited navigability of northern rivers--Various Great Walls--Enormous waste of human life--New Ts'in metropolis--Forced labour and eunuchs.

CHAPTER XXII

_CITIES AND TOWNS_

Ancient cities mere hovels--Soul, the capital of modern Corea-- Modern cities still poor affairs--Want of unity causes downfall of Ts'in and China--Magnificence of Ts'i capital--Ts'u's palaces imitated in Lu--The capital of Wu--Modern Soochow--Nothing known of early Ts'in towns--Reforms of Wei Yang in Ts'in--Probable population--Magnificent buildings at new Ts'in metropolis-- Facility with which vassal states shifted their capitals-- Insignificant size of ancient principalities--Walled cities.

CHAPTER XXIII

_BREAK-UP OF CHINA_

Collapse of Wu, flight in boats to Japan--Ground to believe that the ruling caste of Japan was influenced by Chinese colonists in the fifth century B.C.--Rise of Yueh, and action in China as Protector--Changes in the Hwai River system--Last days of the Chou dynasty--The year 403 B.C. is the second great pivot point in history--Undermining of Ts'i state by the T'ien or Ch'en family-- Confucius shocked at the murder of a Ts'i prince--Sudden rise of Ts'in after two centuries of stagnation--The reforms of Wei Yang lead to the conquest of China--Orthodox China compared with Greece--The "Fighting State" Period.

CHAPTER XXIV

_KINGS AND NOBLES_

Titles of the Emperors of the Chou dynasty--The word "King" in modern times--Posthumous names--The title "Emperor" and the word "Imperial"--"God" confused with "Emperor"--Lao-tsz's view-- Comparison with Babylonia, Egypt, etc.--No feudal prince was recognized by the Emperor as possessing the same title as the Emperor--The Roman Emperors--The five ranks of nobles--The Emperor's private "dukes" compared with cardinals--The state of Lu--The state of Ts'i--The state of Tsin--No race hatreds in China--The state of Wei--Clanship between dynasties--Sacrificial rights--The state of Cheng: a fighting ground for all--The state of Ch'en--Explanation of the term "duke" as applied to all sovereign princes.

CHAPTER XXV

_VASSALS AND EMPEROR_

The vassal princes of the Chou and previous dynasties--Vassal princes and their relations with the Emperors--Protectors make great show of defending the Emperors rights--The Emperor's sacrifices to God--Rules and rights concerning fees--All China belongs to the Emperor--Peculiar notions about the Emperor's territory--Respect due to imperial envoys--Direct and indirect vassals--Ts'u's group of vassals--Ts'u compared with Macedon-- Never subject to the Emperors--Right of passage for armies-- Special complimentary use of the term "viscount"--Titles not inherited during mourning--Forms of address--Rival Protectors and their respective subordinate states--Tribute from the states to the Emperor, and presents from the Emperor to the vassal states-- The Emperor accepts _faits accomplis_, and takes what he can get.

CHAPTER XXVI

_FIGHTING STATE PERIOD_

Period of fighting states--Tsin divided into Han, Ngwei, and Chao- Ts'in developing herself in Tartary and in Sz Ch'wan--Want of orderly method in Chinese history--How the statesmen of each vassal state developed resources--Ts'in's military development compared with that of Prussia from 1815 to 1870--"Perpendicular and Horizontal" period--Object to crush Ts'in--Rival claimants for universal empire--First appearance of the Huns or Turks-Helpless position of Old China--Bloody battles in Ts'in's final career of conquest--A million men decapitated--Immense cavalry fights- Ts'in's supreme effort for conquest of China.

CHAPTER XXVII

_FOREIGN BLOOD_

_Resume_ of Chinese historical development--General lines of Chinese advance--Methods of Chinese colonization--Equal pedigree claims of half-Chinese states--Tsin and Ts'i were even more ancient than orthodox China--Degree of foreignness in Ts'u-Ts'u native words and music--Ts'u peculiarities-Succession laws in Ts'u and Lu compared--Further evidence of Ts'u's foreign ways--Beards-- Titles, posthumous and other--Ts'u admits her own savagery--Ts'u's claim to the Nine Tripods--Ts'u and the Chou rites--Ts'u's gradual civilization--Confucius' admiration of Ts'u--Confucius' style in speaking of barbarians--Distinction between "beat" and "battle"-- German distinctions of rank compared with Chinese--The historical honour of "naming"--Vagueness of testimony and the way to test evidence.

CHAPTER XXVIII

_BARBARIANS_

The state of Wu--First Chinese princely emigrants adopted barbarian usages--The Jungle country and Wu--Wu's way of doing the hair and Wu's confession of barbarism--Federal China uses Wu against Ts'u--Wu the same language and manners as Yueh--Native Wu words--Wu's ignorance of war--Wu's early isolation--Ts'i enters into marriage relations with Wu--Mencius objects retrospectively-- Wu ruling caste--The Wu language--Succession laws of Wu--A Wu prince's views on the soul--Confucius' views on ghosts--Ki-chah's intimacy with orthodox statesmen--Rumours of Early Japan--Japan and Wu tattooing customs alike--Japanese traditions of a connection with Wu--Dangers of etymological guess-work--Doubts about racial matters in Wu--Small value of Japanese history and tradition--General conclusions.

CHAPTER XXIX

_CURIOUS CUSTOMS_

Small size of ancient China--Description of ancient nucleus and surrounding barbarians--Amount of foreign element in each vassal state--Policy of the Ts'i and Lu administrations--The savage tribes of the eastern coasts--Persistency of some down to 970 A.D.--Ts'in's unliterary quality--Her human sacrifices--Her Turkish blood--Late influence of the Emperors over Ts'in--Ts'in's gradual civilization--Ki-chah on Ts'in music--Ts'u treats Ts'in as barbarian still in 361 B.C.--Ts'in's isolation previous to 326 B.C.--Tartar rule of succession at one time in Ts'in--Yiieh's barbarism--Its able king--Native name--Mushroom existence as a power--The various branches of the Yiieh race in Foochow, W&chow, and Tonquin--Wu and Yiieh spoke the same language--Ruling caste of Wu--Stern military discipline in Wu and Yiieh--Neither state proved to have had human sacrifices--Crawling customs--Ancient Chinese descent of rulers--Yiieh's later capital in the German sphere--Her power always marine.

CHAPTER XXX

_LITERARY RELATIONS_

Literary relations between vassal states--Confucius set the ball of philosophy a-rolling--The fourfold "Bible" of China--Odes were generally known by heart--Comparison with President Kruger and his texts--Quotations from Odes and Book enable us to fix dates--Books were heavy weights in those days--People trusted to memory--The Rites more exclusively understood by the ruling classes-- Comparison with Johnsonian wits--Instances cited, with side proofs--History and Classics corroborate each other-Evidences-- Confucius' ancestor composes odes--Political song by the children of Tsin--Another still-existing ode in reference to the Second Protector--Ts'u's early literary knowledge--General knowledge of


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