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- Chess Strategy - 20/68 -


1 | | | | | | | | | --------------------------------------- A B C D E F G H

Diag. 54

takes the opposition with K-Q3, White deprives him of it again, winning a move by P-B3, and the position is similar to that in Diagram 53, with White to move.

1. ... K-Q3 2. P-B3 K-B3 3. K-B4 and wins.

This settles all typical end-games of King and pawn against King. There is, however, one exception to the rules set out, namely, when a ROOK'S PAWN is concerned. Here the isolated King always succeeds in drawing if he can reach the corner where the pawn has to queen, for he cannot be driven out again. The Rook's pawn affords another opportunity for the weaker side to draw. Diagram 55 will illustrate this, and similar positions are of frequent occurrence in practice. Here Black draws with 1. ... K-B5. As he threatens to capture the pawn, White must play 2. P-R4. Then after the reply K-B4, White is still unable to cut the opponent off from the corner with K-Kt7, as the loss of the pawn is still threatened through K-Kt5. And after 3. P-R5 Black attains the position which is typical for this end-game, namely the opposition against the King on the Rook's file. The latter cannot escape without giving up the contested corner, and the game is drawn. 3. ... K-B3; 4. K-R7, K-B2; 5. K-R8, K-B1; 6. P-R6, K-B2; 7. P-R7, K-B1: and White is stalemated.

--------------------------------------- 8 | | | | | | | | | |---------------------------------------| 7 | | | | | | | | | |---------------------------------------| 6 | ^K | | | | | | | | |---------------------------------------| 5 | | | | | | | | | |---------------------------------------| 4 | | | | | | | | | |---------------------------------------| 3 | | | | #K | | | | | |---------------------------------------| 2 | ^P | | | | | | | | |---------------------------------------| 1 | | | | | | | | | --------------------------------------- A B C D E F G H

Diag. 55

End-games with a majority of one pawn, when both sides still have pawns, are much more simple to manipulate.

Such games result in positions of which Diagram 56 is a

--------------------------------------- 8 | | | | | | | | | |---------------------------------------| 7 | | | | | | | | | |---------------------------------------| 6 | | | #P | | | #K | | | |---------------------------------------| 5 | | | ^P | | | | | | |---------------------------------------| 4 | | | | | | | ^P | | |---------------------------------------| 3 | | | | | ^K | | | | |---------------------------------------| 2 | | | | | | | | | |---------------------------------------| 1 | | | | | | | | | --------------------------------------- A B C D E F G H

Diag. 56

typical instance. Here White does not even need to Queen his passed pawn. The mere threat forces the win. For the pawn at Kt4 reduces the mobility of the Black King, in so far as the latter must at all times be ready to reach the queening square in as few moves as the pawn, or else the pawn would queen unmolested. The White King can therefore capture the opposing Bishop's pawn in peace and then queen his own.

1. K-K4, K-K3; 2. P-Kt5, K-K2; 3. K-K5, K-B2; 4. K-Q6, and so on; or 1. ... K-Kt4 KxP; 3. K-Q6, K-B4; 4. KxP, K-K3; 5. K-Kt7, and so on.

Such positions as Diagram 56 are also reached when there are several pawns on each wing. The stronger side exchanges pawns on the wing where there is a majority until the extra pawn is passed.

The winning process is not quite so simple when all the pawns are on the same wing, because exchanges are of no use unless the King can assume the opposition in front of the last remaining pawn (compare notes to Diagram 53).

In Diagram 57, for instance, White must not play P-B4. Therefore he can only win by gaining the Knight's Pawn,

--------------------------------------- 8 | | | | | | | | | |---------------------------------------| 7 | | | | | | | | | |---------------------------------------| 6 | | | | #K | | | | | |---------------------------------------| 5 | | #P | | | | | | | |---------------------------------------| 4 | | ^P | | ^K | | | | | |---------------------------------------| 3 | | | | | | | | | |---------------------------------------| 2 | | | ^P | | | | | | |---------------------------------------| 1 | | | | | | | | | --------------------------------------- A B C D E F G H

Diag. 57

that is, by bringing his King to B5. This he achieves by forcing the Black King to relinquish the opposition with 1. P-B3.

1. ... K-B3; 2. K-K5, K-Kt2; 3. K-Q6, K-Kt3; 4. K-Q5, K-Kt2; 5. K-B5, K-R3; 6. K-B6, and wins, as Black must abandon the pawn.

This position, being of frequent occurrence, is most important, and I recommend it as a valuable study in the use of the opposition.

Before I discuss positions of greater complexity, in which the only way to win is by sacrificing the extra pawn, I shall treat of end-games in which positional advantages ensure the victory although the pawns are equal. Here we shall find simple cases in which pawn manoeuvres bring about the win, and more intricate ones in which King moves are the deciding factor.

Of the former the most important type is the end-game with the "distant passed pawn." A typical example is the position in Diagram 58, in which Black wins.

--------------------------------------- 8 | | | | | | | | #K | |---------------------------------------| 7 | | | | | | | | #P | |---------------------------------------| 6 | #P | | | | | | | | |---------------------------------------| 5 | | #P | | | | | | | |---------------------------------------| 4 | | ^P | | | | | | | |---------------------------------------| 3 | ^P | | | | | | | | |---------------------------------------| 2 | | | | | | ^P | | | |---------------------------------------| 1 | | | | | | | | ^K | --------------------------------------- A B C D E F G H

Diag. 58

The King's moves are outlined by the necessity of capturing the opposing passed pawn, after which the Black King is two files nearer the battle-field (the Queen's side), so that the White pawns must fall.

1. K-Kt2, K-Kt2; 2. K-Kt3, K-B3; 3. K-Kt4, K-K4; 4. P-B4ch, K-B3; 5. K-Kt3, P-R4; 6. K-R4, K-B4; 7. KxP, KxP; 8. K-Kt6, K-K4, and so on.

For similar reasons the position in Diagram 59 is lost for Black. White obtains a passed pawn on the opposite wing to that of the King. He forces the Black King to abandon his King's side pawns, and these are lost. I give the moves in full, because this is another important example characteristic of the ever recurring necessity of applying our arithmetical rule. By simply enumerating the moves necessary for either player to queen his pawn--SEPARATELY for White and Black--we can see the result of our intended manoeuvres, however far ahead we have to extend our calculations.

1. P-R4, K-K3; 2. P-R5, PxP; 3. PxP, K-Q3

Now the following calculations show that Black is lost. White needs ten moves in order to queen on the King's side, namely, five to capture the Black King's side pawns (K-K4, B5, Kt6, R6, Kt5), one to free the way for his pawn, and four moves with the pawn. After ten moves, Black only

--------------------------------------- 8 | | | | | | | | | |---------------------------------------| 7 | | | | | | | | | |---------------------------------------|


Chess Strategy - 20/68

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