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- Chess and Checkers: The Way to Mastership - 10/41 -


(8) P-a8 (Queen), Bxa8; (9) Ktxa8, K-f6; (10) Kt-c7, K-g6; (11) Kt-d5, K-h6; (12) K-f5, K-h7; (13) K-g5, K-h8; (14) K-g6, K-g8; (15) Kt-e7+, K-h8; (16) Kt-f5, K-g8; (17) Ktxg7, K-h8; (18) K-f7, K-h7; (19) P-g5, K-h8; (20) Kt-f5, White could not play P-g6, as Black would have been stalemate. (20) ..., K-h7; (21) P-g6+, K- h8; (22) P-g7+, K-h7; (23) P-g8 (Queen) mate.

The game endings discussed up to now have illustrated the method of winning with a superior force and it is now possible for the beginner to understand that the leading rule for all maneuvers is to AVOID THE LOSS OF MATERIAL--no matter how small--as it will ultimately lead to the loss of the game by one pawn or the other queening.

The next step will be to find out under what conditions it is possible to gain a man and when it will be possible to avoid loss. To understand the attacking and defensive maneuvers involved it is necessary first to become acquainted with the different ways in which the various pieces can be made to do some useful work, where their strength lies and where their weakness, and how they are able to cooperate. Not before all this is clear to the beginner--in the outlines at least--will he be in a position to play a sensible game or even to understand the most elementary strategic principles.

The reader is therefore urged to study carefully the next chapter in which the characteristic features of the different men are discussed. In this way he will much more quickly arrive at a fair playing strength than by relying on the experience which he may gain in playing a great number of games, trying to find out everything for himself instead of profiting by the knowledge which has been gathered by others in centuries of study.

HOW THE DIFFERENT MEN COOPERATE

There are two kinds of elementary attack. One when a single man attacks two or more hostile men at the same time; the other when more men are brought up to attack an opposing man than can be mustered for defense. The beginner, as a rule, makes attacks with the sole aim of driving away a hostile piece; it is clear that these attempts will in most cases be futile as they generally allow the attacked piece to move to another square just as or perhaps more favorable. The advantage of attacking two men at once is evident in that probably only one of them can be saved. The advantage of bringing up more men for attack than can be gathered for defense is not less obvious, but will be found more difficult to carry out. Using both methods of attack in conjunction is the secret of the successful cooperation of the men.

In the following diagrams simple illustrations are shown of elementary cases of such attacks. These positions often occur in games of beginners on account of their placing the men on unfavorable squares. In studying them the eye of the beginner will become accustomed to dangerous formations of the pieces and he will be able to foresee similar threats in his games.

+---------------------------------------+ 8 | #R | | | | #K | | #Kt| #R | |---------------------------------------| 7 | #P | #B | #P | | #B | #P | #P | #P | |---------------------------------------| 6 | | #P | #Kt| #P | | #Q | | | |---------------------------------------| 5 | | | | | #P | | | | |---------------------------------------| 4 | | | ^B | | ^P | | | | |---------------------------------------| 3 | | | ^Kt| ^P | ^B | ^Kt| | | |---------------------------------------| 2 | ^P | ^P | ^P | | | ^P | ^P | ^P | |---------------------------------------| 1 | ^R | | | ^Q | | ^R | ^K | | +---------------------------------------+ a b c d e f g h

DIAGRAM 20.

This is especially true of the mating positions which are discussed below in connection with attacks instituted by the Queen in the middle of the game. It is these attacks to which the beginner at an early stage of the game falls victim in ninety out of a hundred cases when playing against an experienced opponent.

In the position of Diagram 20 White on the move wins the exchange and thereby practically the game by playing (1) Kt-d5. With this move he attacks the Queen and at the same time the Pawn c7. Black, in order not to lose the Queen, must move her, but he cannot move her so that she will protect the Pawn c7.

+---------------------------------------+ 8 | #R | #Kt| #B | | #K | #B | | #R | |---------------------------------------| 7 | #P | #P | #P | | | #P | #P | #P | |---------------------------------------| 6 | | | | | | #Q | | | |---------------------------------------| 5 | | | | | #P | | | | |---------------------------------------| 4 | | | | | ^P | | | | |---------------------------------------| 3 | | | ^Kt| | | | | | |---------------------------------------| 2 | ^P | ^P | ^P | | | ^P | ^P | ^P | |---------------------------------------| 1 | ^R | | | ^Q | ^K | ^B | ^Kt| ^R | +---------------------------------------+ a b c d e f g h

DIAGRAM 21.

On the next move White will, therefore, take the Pawn calling Check and at the same time attacking the Rook a8. The King must move and the Knight takes the Rook.

Quite frequently a similar attack with the Knight is likely to win the Queen if the opponent is not familiar with situations of that kind. If in the position of Diagram 21 White plays (1) Kt- d5, Black must protect the Pawn c7 by Q-d8 or Q-d6, but not by Q- c6; for in the latter case White would continue with (2) B-b5, Qxb5; (3) Ktxc7+ and (4) Ktxb5.

+---------------------------------------+ 8 | #R | #Kt| #B | | #K | #B | | #R | |---------------------------------------| 7 | #P | #P | #P | | | #P | #P | #P | |---------------------------------------| 6 | | | | | #P | #Kt| | | |---------------------------------------| 5 | #Q | | | | | | | | |---------------------------------------| 4 | | | ^B | ^P | | | | | |---------------------------------------| 3 | | | ^Kt| | | | | | |---------------------------------------| 2 | ^P | ^P | ^P | ^B | | ^P | ^P | ^P | |---------------------------------------| 1 | ^R | | | ^Q | ^K | | ^Kt| ^R | +---------------------------------------+ a b c d e f g h

DIAGRAM 22.

Sometimes two pieces are involved in the double attack, the line of one of the pieces being discovered by the other. Thus, in the position of Diagram 22, which could be brought about by the moves (1) P-e4, P-d5; (2) Pxd5, Qxd5; (3) Kt-c3, Q-a5; (4) P-d4, Kt-f6; (5) B-c4, P-e6; (6) B-d2, white threatens to play (7) Kt-d5, uncovering the Bishop d2 on Black's Queen and at the same time attacking the Pawn c7, which Black cannot keep protected.

Threats of this kind more frequently occur in connection with a discovered Check. As an example the following opening will serve: (1) P-e4, P-e5; (2) Kt-f3, Kt-f6; (3) Ktxe5, Ktxe4; (4) Q-e2, Kt- f6. Black's last move exposes his King to a discovered Check, and White wins the Queen by playing (5) Kt-c6+.

Next to the Knight the Queen is most frequently in a position to carry out a double attack. Two typical examples are shown in the following diagrams.

After the opening moves (1) P-e4, P-e5; (2) P-f4, B-C5; (3) Pxe5?? the position of Diagram 23 is reached, in which Black wins a Rook by Q-h4+. White cannot reply (4) K-e2 on account of Qxe4 mate. His only move is (4) P-g3 and then follows Qxe4 attacking King and Rook simultaneously.

This opening offers another opportunity to demonstrate the dangerous mobility of the Queen. Instead of (3) Pxe5 White should have played (3) Kt-f3. The game could then have continued as follows: P-d6; (4) B-c4, Kt-f6; (5) Pxe5, Pxe5: Again White cannot win the Pawn e5 for (6) Ktxe5 would be answered by Q-d4, attacking Knight and Bishop and threatening mate on f2.

+---------------------------------------+ 8 | #R | #Kt| #B | #Q | #K | | #Kt| #R | |---------------------------------------| 7 | #P | #P | #P | #P | | #P | #P | #P | |---------------------------------------| 6 | | | | | | | | | |---------------------------------------| 5 | | | #B | | ^P | | | | |---------------------------------------| 4 | | | | | ^P | | | | |---------------------------------------| 3 | | | | | | | | | |---------------------------------------| 2 | ^P | ^P | ^P | ^P | | | ^P | ^P | |---------------------------------------| 1 | ^R | ^Kt| ^B | ^Q | ^K | ^B | ^Kt| ^R | +---------------------------------------+ a b c d e f g h

DIAGRAM 23.

Diagram 24 shows a typical case of a double threat with the Queen


Chess and Checkers: The Way to Mastership - 10/41

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