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- Chess and Checkers: The Way to Mastership - 4/41 -

he capture the Pawn on h4, for on any of these squares he could be captured by the white Rook.

The white King in Diagram 2 has only three squares to which he may go, namely, b1, b2 and c2, as the squares d1 and d2, though being in his range, are commanded by the black Queen.

The Knight

The Knight moves neither in rank nor file nor diagonal and, therefore, usually offers a little more difficulty to the beginner than the other pieces. The Knight's move is perhaps best described as a leap to the next but one square of different color.[Footnote: It may be helpful to consider the Knight's move when completed as having described a letter "L" composed of four squares, three in one direction and one at right angles to them.] For instance, in Diagram 2 the Knight may move to d8, d6, e5, g5, h6 and h8. In moving to d6 he would capture the Queen.

His move would be in no way obstructed if some of his own or his adversary's men were occupying the squares next to the one on which he stands. This enables the Knight as the only one of the pieces to move at the beginning of the game before any Pawn move has been made.

The strength of the Knight is ordinarily regarded as about equal to that of the Bishop. The latter's range is larger but the Knight has the advantage of being able to reach any square of the board regardless of color.

The Pawn

It remains to describe the move of the Pawn, the only man who captures in a different way from that in which he moves. The Pawn moves FORWARD ONLY in the file in which he stands, and only one square at a time with the exception of his first move on which he may advance two squares. Thus, in Diagram 2, the white Pawn may move only to h5 while the black Pawn may move to either g6 or g5.

The Pawn may capture only diagonally, only forward and only one square at a time. The privilege of taking a double step on the first move does not extend to the capture. Thus in Diagram 2, the white Pawn could capture only a black man on g5, the black Pawn only a man on either f6 or h6, but not on e5. If a man stood on h5, the Pawn h4 would be blocked. Likewise would the Pawn on g7 be blocked by a man on g6.

There is one peculiar rule to be remembered in connection with the move of the Pawn. If a Pawn uses his privilege of making a double step to avoid capture by a hostile Pawn he can be put back one square and captured just the same. For instance, in Diagram 2, if the white Pawn stood on h5 and Black moved his Pawn to g5, White could put Black's Pawn back to g6 and capture him with his Pawn. This way of capturing is called taking "en passant" (French for "in passing") and can be done only by a Pawn, never by a piece.

Lastly must be mentioned the power of the Pawn to become transformed into a piece. This is done automatically whenever a Pawn reaches the extreme opposite side of the board. That is, the player must remove the Pawn from the board and put any piece on his place except a King. Thus it can happen that a player may play with three or more Rooks, Bishops, Knights or Queens. As the Queen is the strongest Piece the Pawns are practically always exchanged for Queens and for this reason the process of the exchange is called "queening."

Although a Pawn has comparatively little value as measured by his mobility--his range of movement--he is really a very valuable man because of the possibility of his eventually queening.


Only once in a game is a player allowed to move more than one piece at a time. This one move is called "castling" and is made by the King together with one of the Rooks. In castling the King moves two squares toward the Rook and the Rook is placed on the square over which the King has passed. In the position of Diagram 3 both players may castle either side.

White, in "castling King's side" would place his King on g1 and the King's Rook on f1; in "castling Queen's side" the King would leap to c1 while the Queen's Rook would take his stand on d1. Likewise Black would castle by either playing the King to g8 and the Rook from h8 to f8, or the King to c8 and the Rook to a8 to d8.

+---------------------------------------+ 8 | #R | | | | #K | | | #R | |---------------------------------------| 7 | #P | #P | #P | | #Q | #P | #P | #P | |---------------------------------------| 6 | | | #Kt| #P | | #Kt| | | |---------------------------------------| 5 | | | #B | | #P | | ^B | | |---------------------------------------| 4 | | | ^B | | ^P | | #B | | |---------------------------------------| 3 | | | ^Kt| ^P | | ^Kt| | | |---------------------------------------| 2 | ^P | ^P | ^P | ^Q | | ^P | ^P | ^P | |---------------------------------------| 1 | ^R | | | | ^K | | | ^R | +---------------------------------------+ a b c d e f g h


+---------------------------------------+ 8 | #R | #Kt| | | #K | | | #R | |---------------------------------------| 7 | #P | #P | | | | #P | #P | #P | |---------------------------------------| 6 | | | #P | | | | | | |---------------------------------------| 5 | | | | #P | ^P | | | | |---------------------------------------| 4 | | ^B | | | | ^P | | | |---------------------------------------| 3 | | | | | #Kt| ^Kt| | | |---------------------------------------| 2 | ^P | ^P | ^P | | | | ^P | ^P | |---------------------------------------| 1 | ^R | | | | ^K | | | ^R | +---------------------------------------+ a b c d e f g h


Castling is permitted only when neither King nor Rook concerned has previously moved, when none of the squares between the King and the Rook are obstructed and when none of the three squares involved in the King's move are controlled by an adverse man. Thus if in check (see page 17) the player may not castle. In Diagram 4, neither White nor Black may castle.


Attack and Defense

A man is said to ATTACK another man if he moves so that on his next move he could capture the other man. Thus, in Diagram 5, White could attack Black's Bishop by moving his Rook to d1 or to e6.

A man is said to DEFEND or to PROTECT another man if he moves so that in case the other man is captured by a hostile man he could recapture the latter. Thus, in Diagram 5, Black could defend his Bishop by moving his Knight to either e4 or e8 in case White attacks with the Rook from d1. Should White attack from e6, then Black would not defend the Bishop with the Knight, for on e4 as well as on e8 the Knight is unprotected and could be captured by the Rook without White losing anything in exchange. Black has a much more simple way to defend the attack of the Rook from e6, that is, by capturing the Rook with the Pawn f7. For this reason White would not have moved the Rook to e6.

Check and Checkmate

If a man makes a move which attacks the opposing King the King is said to be in "check." The player whose King is checked then has to make a move which gets the King out of check

+---------------------------------------+ 8 | | | | | | | #K | | |---------------------------------------| 7 | | | | | | #P | #P | | |---------------------------------------| 6 | | | | #B | | #Kt| | #P | |---------------------------------------| 5 | | | | | | | | | |---------------------------------------| 4 | ^P | | | | | | | | |---------------------------------------| 3 | | | ^P | | | | | ^P | |---------------------------------------| 2 | | | | | | | ^P | | |---------------------------------------| 1 | | | | | ^R | | ^K | | +---------------------------------------+ a b c d e f g h


or he forfeits the game. This is the only case in which a player is not at liberty to make any move he likes.

Chess and Checkers: The Way to Mastership - 4/41

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