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- European Background Of American History - 40/42 -

"Voyages en Asie ... du ... Odoric de Pordenone" (edited by Henri Cordier). English translations of Rubruquis and Pordenone also appear as an appendix in Travels of Sir John Mandeville, edited by A. W. Pollard (1900). Sir John Mandeville is worthless as an historical source, as his genuine material is all drawn from these sources and from Marco Polo, and there is no probability that he ever travelled in the East. His own additions are usually mendacious. The standard edition of Marco Polo is that of Sir Henry Yule (2 vols., 1871). This has just been reprinted with additional editorial notes by Henri Cordier, under the title, The Book of Ser Marco Polo the Venetian, Concerning the Kingdoms and Marvels of the East, etc. (1903). A valuable collection of narratives of early discovery is M. F. de Navarrete, Coleccion de los Viages y Descubrimientos (5 vols., 1825- 1837). Those of particular interest to England are in Richard Hakluyt, Principal Navigations, Voyages, and Discoveries (1589, reprinted 1903, to be in 12 vols.).


Among the standard histories of mediaeval and modern geography are Joachim Lelewel, Geographie du Moyen Age (4 vols., 1852-1857); Vivien de St. Martin, Histoire de la Geographie et des Decouvertes Geographiques (1873); M. F. Vicomte de Santarem, Essai sur L'Histoire de la Cosmographie pendant le Moyen Age (3 vols., 1849-1852); and C. R. Beazley, The Dawn of Modern Geography (vols. I. and II., 1897 and 1901). A full account of the history and development of maps, especially of the form known as portolani, is to be found in the two works translated from the Swedish of A. E. Nordenskiold: Facsimile Atlas to the Early History of Cartography (1889), Periplus, an Essay on the Early History of Charts and Sailing-Directions (1 vol. and an atlas, 1897); G. Wauverman, Histoire de L'Ecole Cartographique Belge et Anversois du 16 degrees Siecle (2 vols., 1895).

The state of geographical knowledge at the beginning of the period of explorations is well described in C. R. Beazley, Introduction to the volume of the Hakluyt Society's publications for 1899. F. Kunstmann, Die Kenntniss Indiens in XV. Jahrhunderts (1863); and G. H. Pertz, Der Aelteste Versuch zur Entdeckung des Seeweges nach Ostindien (1859), describe two important phases of that subject.

The fullest and best work on the relations between the Orient and the Occident, the trade-routes, the objects of trade, and the methods of its administration is Wilhelm Heyd, Geschichte des Levantehandels im Mittelalter (2 vols., 1879). There is a French translation of this work (1885-1887), which is later and has been corrected by the author. There is a valuable article on ancient trade in Encyclopaedia Biblica, IV., 48, etc. Much that is suggestive and informing concerning Eastern commerce and trade-routes can be found in Sir W. W. Hunter, History of British India, I. (1899), and on the products of the East in Sir George Birdwood, Report of Commissioners for the Paris Exhibition of 1878 (1878). Some information concerning trade organization in the Mediterranean Sea and throughout Europe can be found in William Cunningham, An Essay on Western Civilization in Its Economic Aspects (2 vols., 1898-1900). H. H. Helmolt, General History, VII., pt. i., pp. 1- 139, has a long and valuable chapter on "The Economic Development of Western Europe Since the Time of the Crusades," by Dr. Richard Mayr. John Fiske, The Discovery of America (2 vols., 1892), contains an interesting popular account of the trade conditions of the time and of those explorations which were directed westward.

The formation of the later commercial companies is described and the provisions of their charters analyzed in P. Bonnassieux, Les Grandes Compagnies de Commerce (1892). This work is somewhat superficial, being based, apparently, entirely on works in the French and Latin languages, and using secondary materials where primary sources are attainable; but it stands almost alone in its subject, and has, therefore, considerable importance.

Naval architecture is described in Auguste Jal, Archeologie Navale (2 vols., 1840); and J. P. E. Jurien de la Graviere, Les Manns du XV. et du XVI. Siecle (1879); Sir William Stirling-Maxwell, Don John of Austria (2 vols., 1883).


The best general account of Italy during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries is in Lavisse et Rambaud, Histoire Generale, III., chaps, ix. and x., and IV., chap. i. For the intellectual and artistic history of Italy as a whole, J. Burckhardt, The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy (1860, English translation, 2 vols.), is the most satisfactory work. J. A. Symonds, Renaissance in Italy (7 vols., 1875-1886), takes up many sides of the period. A good general history of Venice in small compass is H. P. Brown, Venice: a Historical Sketch of the Republic (1893).

M. G. Canale, Storia del Commercio dei Viaggi, ... degl' Italiani (1866), and Storia della Republica di Genoa (1858-1864), contain much information about Mediterranean trade and voyages, especially of the Genoese.

The commerce of Venice is described in H. F. Brown, Calendar of State Papers, Venetian, Introduction, I. (1864).

Of the fondaco and the German merchants in Venice a description is given in H. Simonsfeld, Der Fondaco dei Tedeschi in Venedig (2 vols., 1887). Many additional sources are in G. Thomas, Capitolare dei Visdomini del Fontego dei Todechi (1874). A valuable article on the same subject is W. Heyd, "Das Haus der deutschen Kaufleute in Venedig," in Historische Zeitschrift, XXXII., 193-220.

The standard history of the rise of the Ottoman Empire is J. W. Zinkeisen, Geschichte des Osmanischen Reichs in Europa (6 vols., 1840). More modern works are A. La Jonquiere, Histoire de L'Empire Ottoman (1881); and G. F. Herzberg, Geschichte des Bysantischen und des Osmanischen Reiches (1883).

An excellent work on the fifteenth century is Edwin Pears, The Destruction of the Greek Empire and the Story of the Capture of Constantinople by the Turks (2 vols., 1903). For later history, see L. von Ranke, Die Osmanen in XVI. und XVII. Jahrhundert (1827). A short and good popular account is A. Lane-Poole, Turkey (1886). Good sections are devoted to the Ottoman Turks in the Cambridge Modern History (I., chap, iii., by J. B. Bury); and in Lavisse et Rambaud, Histoire Generale (III., chap, xvi., and IV., chap, xix.), by A. Rambaud.


A short but excellent history of Portugal is H. M. Stephens, The Story of Portugal (1891, Stories of the Nations Series).

The interesting character and significant work of Prince Henry the Navigator have made him the subject of many biographies. One of the earliest of these was G. de Veer, Prinz Heinrich und seine Zeit (1864). More detailed is R. H. Major, Life of Prince Henry the Navigator (1868, abbreviated edition, 1874). A number of other biographies were called forth by the interest in the five hundredth anniversary of Henry's birth, which was coincident with the four hundredth anniversary of the discovery of America. A partial list of these is as follows: C. R. Beazley, Prince Henry the Navigator (1890); G. Wauverman, Henri le Navigateur et L'Academie Portugaise de Sagres (1890); J. P. O. Martins, Os Filhos de Dom Joao I. (1891); M. Barradas, O Infante Dom Henrique (1894); A. Alves, Dom Henrique o Infante (1894); J. E. Wappaus, Untersuchungen uber... Heinrich (1842). Two valuable essays, Prince Henry the Navigator and The Demarcation Line of Pope Alexander III., by E. G. Bourne, are republished in his Essays in Historical Criticism (1901).

The most important original source for the early exorations of the Portuguese is Gomes Eannes de Azurara, Chronicle of the Discovery and Conquest of Guinea (2 vols., Hakluyt Society, 1896 and 1899). The voyages of Cadamosto are published by the Hakluyt Society. Long extracts from the accounts of the voyages of Diego Gomez are given in C. R. Beazley, Prince Henry, 289-298, and in R. H. Major, Prince Henry, 288-298. A number of original documents illustrative of this period are contained in Alguns Documentos do Archivo Nacional da Torre do Tombo Acerca das Navagacoes e Conquistas Portuguezas (1892). An account of the latest stages of the Portuguese advance to India is given in F. C. Danvers, The Portuguese in India (1894). An almost contemporary account of the explorations is J. Barros, Decadas da Asia (first published 1552, etc.); the first five books have been translated into German by E. Feust (1844).


The great collection of sources for the history of Spain is the Coleccion de Documentos Ineditos para la Historia de Espana (112 vols., 1842-1895). Matters more particularly relating to the subjects of this book appear in vols. I., III., VI., XIII., XIX., XXIV., XXVIII., XXXIX., and LI. The proceedings of the cortes are published by the Academia de la Historia, Cortes de los Antiguos Reinos de Leon y de Castilla (4 vols., 1861-1884). The records of those called by Ferdinand and Isabella are in vol. IV. (1882). A careful analysis and introduction to these records is by M. Colmeiro (2 vols., 1883-1884).

The three most important chronicles of Spain contemporary with Ferdinand and Isabella are Hernando del Pulgar, Cronica de los Reyes Catolicos (1780); and Andre Bernaldez, Historia de los Reyes (1878).

The institutions of Spain are described in detail in two admirable works: J. M. Antequera, Historia de la Legislacion Espanola (1874); and F. M. Marina, Ensayo Historico-critico sobre la Antigua Legislacion ... de Leon y Castilla (1834). There is a short but systematic and valuable account of Spanish institutions in The Cambridge Modern History (I., chap, xi., by H. B. Clarke). The most satisfactory general description of the changes in Spanish institutions during the reign of the Catholic sovereigns is J. H. Mariejol, L'Espagne sous Ferdinand et Isabelle: le Gouvernement, les Institutions, et les Moeurs (1892). William H. Prescott, The Reign of Ferdinand and Isabella the Catholic (various editions), is less uncritical in character, and consequently more trustworthy, than the other works of this author. An important study of the personal character of Isabella is Clemencin, Elogio de la Reina Catolica, in Real Academia de la Historia, Memorias, IV. An important and suggestive study of this period is W. Maurenbrecher, Spanien unter den Katholischen Konigen: Studien und Skizzen zur Geschichte der Reformationszeit (1857). Of somewhat similar character is W. Havemann, Darstellungen aus der inneren Geschichte Spaniens wahrend des XV., XVI. und XVII. Jahrhunderts (1850). The more purely political history is best given in M. Danvilla y Collado, El Poder Civil en Espana (6 vols., 1885-1887). The expulsion of the Jews is described in the third volume of J. Amador de los Rios, Los Judios de Espana y Portugal (3 vols., 1875-1876); that of the Moriscos in H. C. Lea, The Moriscos of Spain, their Conversion and Expulsion (1901). Much valuable description of this period is also given in H. C. Lea, Chapters from the Religious History of Spain (1890). Mr. Lea has also an important article, "The Policy of Spain towards the Indies" (Yale Review, August, 1899). The military history of Ferdinand's reign is given in P. Boissonade, Reunion de la Navarre a la Castille (1893), and in the large general histories of Spain, such as A. Canovas del Castillo, Historia General de Espana (1894), and Vicente de la Fuente, Historia General de Espana (30 vols., 1850-1867).

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