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- European Background Of American History - 42/42 -

records. John Lister, West Riding Sessions Rolls, 1597-1602 (Yorkshire Archaeological and Topographical Association, Records Series, III., 1888); J. C. Jeaffreson, Middlesex County Records, 1549-1608 (Middlesex County Records Society, 1886-1892); Ernest Axon, in Record Society of Lancaster and Cheshire, Manchester Sessions, XLII. Some material for Wiltshire and Worcestershire is published in the Historical Manuscripts Commission, Reports, VI., VII.

A. H. A. Hamilton, Quarter-Sessions ... chiefly of Devon (1878), contains much on the subject. E. M. Leonard, The Early History of the English Poor Relief (1900), is a scholarly study involving much description of local administration and the central and local governments.

For the parish, Richard Burn, Ecclesiastical Law (2 vols., 1763); William Sheppard, Offices and Duties of Constables, Borsholders, Tythingmen, etc. (1641); William Lambarde, Duties of Church-wardens and Duties of Constables, affixed to his Eirenarcha (1581); George Meriton, Duties of Constables (1669). For the actual life of the parish, recourse must be had to the few bodies of such records that are printed separately or in local histories. Some of these are as follows: J. L. Glasscock, Records of St. Michael's Church (1882); Collyer and Turner, Ilkley, Ancient and Modern (1885); W. T. Woodbridge, Rushbrook Parish Registers (1903); W. O. Massingberd, History of Ormsby (1893); J. P. Earwaker, Constables' Accounts of Manchester (3 vols., 1891-1892); John Nichols, Illustration of the Manners, etc., of England from Accounts of Church-wardens (1797).

The book that has exerted the most influence on opinion on this subject is Toulmin Smith, The Parish (1854). It is, however, written in a spirit of controversy, many of its interpretations of the statutes are quite incorrect, and it must, therefore, be used with great caution. Its most valuable contents are its references to sources, and extracts from local records. Rudolf Gneist, Self-Government, Communalverfassung und Verwaltungsgeschichte in England (1871), is almost the sole work covering the whole subject, but it is quite unsatisfactory, being drawn from a comparatively small group of sources. George E. Howard, Local Constitutional History of the United States (Johns Hopkins University Studies, extra vol. IV., 1889), and The Development of the King's Peace (Nebraska University Studies, I., 1890); Edward Channing, Town and County Government in the English Colonies of North America (Johns Hopkins University Studies, II., No. 10), and some other articles by Herbert B. Adams and others in the same series, include considerable information on local conditions in England, though their primary reference is to America.

[Proofer's note: Index omitted.]


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