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- REPRODUCTION OF COPYRIGHTED WORKS - 6/12 -


Mr. KASTENMElER. Mr. Chairman, in response to the gentleman's question and his observations preceding the question, I would say, indeed they have.

Over the years this has been one of the most difficult questions. It is a problem that I believe has been very successfully resolved.

Section 107 on "Fair Use" has, of course, restated four standards, and these standards are, namely: The purpose and character of the use of the material; the nature of the copyrighted work; the amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole; and the effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work.

These are the four "Fair Use" criteria. These alone were not adequate to guide teachers, and I am sure the gentleman from Kansas (Mr. SKUBITZ) understands that as a schoolteacher himself.

Therefore, the educators, the proprietors, and the publishers of educational materials did, at the committee's long insistence, get together. While there were many fruitless meetings, they did finally get together.

Mr. Chairman, I will draw the gentleman's attention to pages 65 through 74 in the report which contain extensive guidelines for teachers. I am very happy to say that there was an agreement reached between teachers and publishers of educational material, and that today the National Education Association supports the bill, and it has, in fact, sent a telegram which at the appropriate time I will make a part of the RECORD and which requests support for the bill in its present form, believing that it has satisfied the needs of the teachers:

*** NATIONAL EDUCATION ASSOCIATION, Washington, D.C., September 10, 1976.

National Education Association urgently requests your support of the Copyright Revision bill, H.R. 2223, as reported by the Judiciary Committee. This compromise effort represents a major breakthrough in establishing equitable legal guidelines for the use of copyright materials for instructional and research purposes. We ask your support of the committee bill without amendments.

JAMES W. GREEN, Assistant Director for Legislation. ***

Mr. SKUBITZ. Mr. Chairman, if the gentleman will yield further, then the NEA is satisfied with the language in the bill as it now stands; is that correct?

Mr. KASTENMEIER. The gentleman is correct.

Mr. SKUBlTZ. Mr. Chairman, I thank the gentleman.

----------------------------------------- D. REPRODUCTION BY LIBRARIES AND ARCHIVES -----------------------------------------

1. Text of Section 108

=============================================================== The following is a reprint of the entire text of section 108 of title 17, United States Code. ===============================================================

Section 108. Limitations on exclusive rights:

*Reproduction by libraries and archives*

(a) Notwithstanding the provisions of section 106, it is not an infringement of copyright for a library or archives, or any of its employees acting within the scope of their employment, to reproduce no more than one copy or phonorecord of a work, or to distribute such copy or phonorecord, under the conditions specified by this section, if--

(1) the reproduction or distribution is made without any purpose of direct or indirect commercial advantage;

(2) the collections of the library or archives are (i) open to the public, or (ii) available not only to researchers affiliated with the library or archives or with the institution of which it is a part, but also to other persons doing research in a specialized field; and

(3) the reproduction or distribution of the work includes a notice of copyright.

(b) The rights of reproduction and distribution under this section apply to a copy or phonorecord of an unpublished work duplicated in facsimile form solely for purposes of preservation and security or for deposit for research use in another library or archives of the type described by clause (2) of subsection (a), if the copy or phonorecord reproduced is currently in the collections of the library or archives.

(c) The right of reproduction under this section applies to a copy or phonorecord of a published work duplicated in facsimile form solely for the purpose of replacement of a copy or phonorecord that is damaged, deteriorating, lost, or stolen, if the library or archives has, after a reasonable effort, determined that an unused replacement cannot be obtained at a fair price.

(d) The rights of reproduction and distribution under this section apply to a copy, made from the collection of a library or archives where the user makes his or her request or from that of another library or archives, of no more than one article or other contribution to a copyrighted collection or periodical issue, or to a copy or phonorecord of a small part of any other copyrighted work, if--

(1) the copy or phonorecord becomes the property of the user, and the library or archives has had no notice that the copy or phonorecord would be used for any purpose other than private study, scholarship, or research; and

(2) the library or archives displays prominently, at the place where orders are accepted, and includes on its order form, a warning of copyright in accordance with requirements that the Register of Copyrights shall prescribe by regulation.

(e) The rights of reproduction and distribution under this section apply to the entire work, or to a substantial part of it, made from the collection of a library or archives where the user makes his or her request or from that of another library or archives, if the library or archives. has first determined, on the basis of a reasonable investigation, that a copy or phonorecord of the copyrighted work cannot be obtained at a fair price, if--

(1) the copy or phonorecord becomes the property of the user, and the library or archives has had no notice that the copy or phonorecord would be used for any purpose other than private study, scholarship, or research; and

(2) the library or archives displays prominently, at the place where orders are accepted, and includes on its order form, a warning of copyright in accordance with requirements that the Register of Copyrights shall prescribe by regulation.

(f) Nothing in this section--

(1) shall be construed to impose liability for copyright infringement upon a library or archives or its employees for the unsupervised use of reproducing equipment located on its premises: Provided, That such equipment displays a notice that the making of a copy may be subject to the copyright law;

(2) excuses a person who uses such reproducing equipment or who requests a copy or phonorecord under subsection (d) from liability for copyright infringement for any such act, or for any later use of such copy or phonorecord, if it exceeds fair use as provided by section 107;

(3) shall be construed to limit the reproduction and distribution by lending of a limited number of copies and excerpts by a library or archives of an audiovisual news program, subject to clauses (1), (2), and (3) of subsection (a); or

(4) in any way affects the right of fair use as provided by section 107, or any contractual obligations assumed at any time by the library or archives when it obtained a copy or phonorecord of a work in its collections.

(g) The rights of reproduction and distribution under this section extend to the isolated and unrelated reproduction or distribution of a single copy or phonorecord of the same material on separate occasions, but do not extend to cases where the library or archives, or its employee--

(1) is aware or has substaiitial reason to believe that it is engaging in the related or concerted reproduction or distribution of multiple copies or phonorecords of the same material, whether made on one occasion or over a period of time, and whether intended for aggregate use by one or more individuals or for separate use by the individual members of a group; or

(2) engages in the systematic reproduction or distribution of single or multiple copies or phonorecords of material described in subsection (d): Provided, That nothing in this clause prevents a library or archives from participating in interlibrary arrangements that do not have, as their purpose or effect, that the library or archives receiving such copies or phonorecords for distribution does so in such aggregate quantities as to substitute for a subscription to or purchase of such work.

(h) The rights of reproduction and distribution under this section do not apply to a musical work, a pictorial, graphic or sculptural work, or a motion picture or other audiovisual work other than an audiovisual work dealing with news, except that no such limitation shall apply with respect to rights granted by subsections (b) and (c), or with respect to pictorial or graphic works published as illustrations, diagrams, or similar adjuncts to works of which copies are reproduced or distributed in accordance with subsections (d) and (e).

2. Excerpts From Senate Report on Section 108

=================================================================== The following excerpts are reprinted from the 1975 Senate Report on the new copyright law (S. Rep. No. 94-473, pages 67-71). Where the discussions of particular points are generally similar in the two


REPRODUCTION OF COPYRIGHTED WORKS - 6/12

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