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l. 1897. The boat had been left, at ll. 294-302, in the keeping of Hrôðgâr's men; at l. 1901 the bât-weard is specially honored by Beowulf with a sword and becomes a "sworded squire."--E. This circumstance appears to weld the poem together. Cf. also the speed of the journey home with ymb ân-tîd ôþres dôgores of l. 219, and the similarity of language in both passages (fâmig-heals, clifu, nässas, sælde, brim, etc.).--The nautical terms in Beowulf would form an interesting study.
l. 1904. R. proposes, gewât him on naca, = _the vessel set out_, on alliterating as at l. 2524 (_Zachers Zeitschr._ iii. 402). B. reads on nacan, but inserts irrelevant matter (_Beit._ xii. 97).
l. 1913. Cf. the same use of ceól, = _ship_, in the _A.-S. Chron._, ed. Earle-Plummer; _Gnomic Verses_, etc.
l. 1914. S. inserts þät hê before on lande.
l. 1916. B. makes leófra manna depend on wlâtode, = _looked for the dear men ready at the coast_ (_Beit._ xii. 97).
l. 1924. Gr., W., and Ho. propose wunade, = _remained;_ but cf. l. 1929. S. conceives ll. 1924, 1925 as "direct speech" (_Beit._ ix. 141).
l. 1927 _seq._ "The women of Beowulf are of the fine northern type; trusted and loved by their husbands and by the nobles and people; generous, gentle, and holding their place with dignity."--Br., p. 67. Thrytho is the exception, l. 1932 _seq._
l. 1933. C. suggests frêcnu, = _dangerous, bold_, for Thrytho could not be called "excellent." G. writes "Modthrytho" as her name. The womanly Hygd seems purposely here contrasted with the terrible Thrytho, just as, at l. 902 _seq._, Sigemund and Heremôd are contrasted. For Thrytho, etc., cf. Gr., _Jahrb. für rom. u. eng. Lit._ iv. 279; Müllenhoff, _Haupts Zeitschr._ xiv. 216; Matthew Paris; Suchier, _Beit._ iv. 500-521; R. _Zachers Zeitschr._ iii. 402; B., _ibid._ iv. 206; Körner, _Eng. Stud._ i. 489-492; H.-So., p. 106.
l. 1932-1963. K. first pointed out the connection between the historical Offa, King of Mercia, and his wife Cwendrida, and the Offa and Þryðo (Gr.'s _Drida_ of the _Vita Offæ Secundi_) of the present passage. The tale is told of her, not of Hygd.
l. 1936. Suchier proposes andæges, = _eye to eye_; Leo proposes ândæges, = _the whole day_; G., _by day_. No change is necessary if an be taken to govqern hire, = _on her_, and däges be explained (like nihtes, etc.) as a genitive of time, = _by day_.
l. 1943. R. and Suchier propose onsêce, = _seek, require_; but cf. 2955.
l. 1966. Cf. the _heofoncandel_ of _Exod_. l. 115 (Hunt). Shak.'s 'night's candles.'
l. 1969. Cf. l. 2487 _seq._ for the actual slayer of Ongenþeów, i.e. Eofor, to whom Hygelâc gave his only daughter as a reward, l. 2998.
l. 1981. meodu-scencum = _with mead-pourers_ or _mead-cups_ (G., Ha.); _draught or cup of mead_ (Toller-Bosw.).
l. 1982. K., Th., W., H. supply [heal-]reced; Holler [heá-].
l. 1984. B. defends the MS., reading hæ nû (for hæðnû), which he regards as = Heinir, the inhabitants of the Jutish "heaths" (hæð). Cf. H.-So., p. 107; _Beit._ xii. 9.
l. 1985. sînne. "In poetry there is a reflexive possessive of the third person, sîn (declined like mîn). It is used not only as a true reflexive, but also as a non-reflexive (= Lat. _ejus_)"--Sw.; Cook's Sievers' Gram., p. 185. Cf. ll. 1508, 1961, 2284, 2790.
l. 1994. Cf. l. 190 for a similar use of seáð; cf. to "glow" with emotion, "boil" with indignation, "burn" with anger, etc. weallan is often so used; cf. ll. 2332, 2066, etc.
l. 2010. B. proposes fâcne, = _in treachery_, for fenne. Cf. _Juliana_, l. 350; _Beit._ xii. 97.
l. 2022. Food of specific sorts is rarely, if at all, mentioned in the poem. Drink, on the other hand, occurs in its primitive varieties,--_ale_ (as here: ealu-wæg), _mead, beer, wine, lîð_ (cider? Goth. _leiþus_, Prov. Ger. _leit-_ in _leit-haus_, ale-house), etc.
l. 2025. Kl. proposes is for wäs.
l. 2027. Cf. l. 1599 for a similar use of weorðan, = _agree, be pleased with_ (Ha.); _appear_ (Sw., Reader, 6th ed.).
ll. 2030, 2031. Ten Br. proposes: oft seldan ( = _gave_) wære äfter leód-hryre: lytle hwîle bongâr bûgeð, þeáh seó brýd duge = _oft has a treaty been given after the fall of a prince: but little while the murder-spear resteth, however excellent the bride be._ Cf. Kl., _Beit._ ix. 190; B., _Beit._ xii. 369; R., _Zachers Zeitschr._ in. 404; Ha., p. 69; G., p. 62.
l. 2036. Cf. Kl, _Beit._ ix. 191; R., _Zachers Zeitschr._ iii. 404.
l. 2042. For beáh B. reads bâ, = _both_, i.e. Freaware and the Dane.
l. 2063. Thorkelin and Conybeare propose wîgende, = _fighting_, for lifigende.
l. 2068. W.'s edition begins section xxx. (not marked in the MS.) with this line. Section xxxix. (xxxviii. in copies A and B, xxxix. in Thorkelin) is not so designated in the MS., though þâ (at l. 2822) is written with capitals and xl. begins at l. 2893.
l. 2095. Cf. l. 1542, and note.
l. 2115 _seq._ B. restores thus:
Þær on innan gióng niðða nâthwylc, neóde tô gefêng hæðnum horde; hond ätgenam seleful since fâh; nê hê þät syððan âgeaf, þeáh þe hê slæpende besyrede hyrde þeófes cräfte: þät se þióden onfand, bý-folc beorna, þät hê gebolgen wäs.
--_Beit._ xii. 99; _Zachers Zeitschr._ iv. 210.
l. 2128. ätbär here = _bear away_, not given in the Gloss.
l. 2129. B. proposes færunga, = _suddenly_, for Gr.'s reading in the text.--_Beit._ xii. 98.
l. 2132. MS. has þine life, which Leo translates _by thy leave_ (= ON. _leyfi_); B., _by thy life_.--_Beit._ xii. 369.
l. 2150. B. renders gen, etc., by "now I serve thee alone again as my gracious king" (_Beit._ xii. 99).
l. 2151. The forms hafu [hafo], hafast, hafað, are poetic archaisms.--Sw.
l. 2153. Kl. proposes ealdor, = _prince_, for eafor. W. proposes the compd. eafor-heáfodsegn, = _helm_; cf. l. 1245.
l. 2157. The wk. form of the adj. is frequent in the vocative, especially when postponed: "Beowulf leófa," l. 1759. So, often, in poetry in nom.: wudu selesta, etc.
l. 2158. ærest is possibly the verbal subs. from ârîsan, _to arise, = arising, origin_. R. suggested ærist, _arising, origin_. Cf. Bede, _Eccles. Hist._, ed. Miller, where the word is spelt as above, but = (as usual) _resurrection_. See Sweet, Reader, p. 211; E.-Plummer's _Chronicle_, p. 302, etc. The MS. has est. See Ha., p. 73; S., _Beit._ x. 222; and cf. l. 2166.
l. 2188. Gr., W., H. supply [wên]don, = _weened_, instead of Th.'s [oft säg]don.
l. 2188. The "slack" Beowulf, like the sluggish Brutus, ultimately reveals his true character, and is presented with a historic sword of honor. It is "laid on his breast" (l. 2195) as Hun laid Lâfing on Hengest's breast, l. 1145.
l. 2188. "The boy was at first slothful, and the Geats thought him an unwarlike prince, and long despised him. Then, like many a lazy third son in the folk tales, a change came, he suddenly showed wonderful daring and was passionate for adventure."--Br., p. 22.
l. 2196. "Seven of thousands, manor and lordship" (Ha.). Kl., _Beit._ ix. 191, thinks with Ettm. that þûsendo means a hide of land (see Schmid, _Ges. der Angl_, 610), Bede's familia = 1/2 sq. meter; seofan being used (like hund, l. 2995) only for the alliteration.
l. 2196. "A vast Honour of 7000 hides, a mansion, and a judgment-seat" [throne].--E.
l. 2210. MS. has the more correct wintra.
l. 2211. Cf. similar language about the dragon at l. 100. Beowulf's "jubilee" is fitly solemnized by his third and last dragon-fight.
l. 2213. B. proposes sê þe on hearge hæðen hord beweotode; cf. Ha., p. 75.
l. 2215. "The dragon lies round the treasures in a cave, as Fafnir, like a Python, lay coiled over his hoard. So constant was this habit among the dragons that gold is called Worms' bed, Fafnir's couch, Worms' bed-fire. Even in India, the cobras ... are guardians of treasure."--Br., p. 50.
l. 2216. neóde. E. translates _deftly_; Ha., _with ardor_. H.-So. reads neóde, = _with desire, greedily_, instr. of neód.
l. 2223. E. begins his "Part Third" at this point as he begins "Part Second" at l. 1252, each dragon-fight forming part of a trilogy.
ll. 2224, 2225. B. proposes: nealles mid gewealdum wyrmes weard gäst sylfes willum.--_Zachers Zeitschr._ iv. 211; _Beit._ xii. 100.
l. 2225. For þeów read þegn.--K. and Z.
l. 2225. þeów, st. m., _slave, serf_ (not in H.-So.).
l. 2227. For ofer-þearfe read ærnes þearfa.--Z.
ll. 2229-2231. B. proposes:
secg synbysig sôna onwlâtode, þeáh þâm gyste gryrebrôga stôd, hwäðre earmsceapen innganges þearfa
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