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- Beowulf - 30/101 -

l. 1897. The boat had been left, at ll. 294-302, in the keeping of Hrgr's men; at l. 1901 the bt-weard is specially honored by Beowulf with a sword and becomes a "sworded squire."--E. This circumstance appears to weld the poem together. Cf. also the speed of the journey home with ymb n-td res dgores of l. 219, and the similarity of language in both passages (fmig-heals, clifu, nssas, slde, brim, etc.).--The nautical terms in Beowulf would form an interesting study.

l. 1904. R. proposes, gewt him on naca, = _the vessel set out_, on alliterating as at l. 2524 (_Zachers Zeitschr._ iii. 402). B. reads on nacan, but inserts irrelevant matter (_Beit._ xii. 97).

l. 1913. Cf. the same use of cel, = _ship_, in the _A.-S. Chron._, ed. Earle-Plummer; _Gnomic Verses_, etc.

l. 1914. S. inserts t h before on lande.

l. 1916. B. makes lefra manna depend on wltode, = _looked for the dear men ready at the coast_ (_Beit._ xii. 97).

l. 1924. Gr., W., and Ho. propose wunade, = _remained;_ but cf. l. 1929. S. conceives ll. 1924, 1925 as "direct speech" (_Beit._ ix. 141).

l. 1927 _seq._ "The women of Beowulf are of the fine northern type; trusted and loved by their husbands and by the nobles and people; generous, gentle, and holding their place with dignity."--Br., p. 67. Thrytho is the exception, l. 1932 _seq._

l. 1933. C. suggests frcnu, = _dangerous, bold_, for Thrytho could not be called "excellent." G. writes "Modthrytho" as her name. The womanly Hygd seems purposely here contrasted with the terrible Thrytho, just as, at l. 902 _seq._, Sigemund and Heremd are contrasted. For Thrytho, etc., cf. Gr., _Jahrb. fr rom. u. eng. Lit._ iv. 279; Mllenhoff, _Haupts Zeitschr._ xiv. 216; Matthew Paris; Suchier, _Beit._ iv. 500-521; R. _Zachers Zeitschr._ iii. 402; B., _ibid._ iv. 206; Krner, _Eng. Stud._ i. 489-492; H.-So., p. 106.

l. 1932-1963. K. first pointed out the connection between the historical Offa, King of Mercia, and his wife Cwendrida, and the Offa and ryo (Gr.'s _Drida_ of the _Vita Off Secundi_) of the present passage. The tale is told of her, not of Hygd.

l. 1936. Suchier proposes andges, = _eye to eye_; Leo proposes ndges, = _the whole day_; G., _by day_. No change is necessary if an be taken to govqern hire, = _on her_, and dges be explained (like nihtes, etc.) as a genitive of time, = _by day_.

l. 1943. R. and Suchier propose onsce, = _seek, require_; but cf. 2955.

l. 1966. Cf. the _heofoncandel_ of _Exod_. l. 115 (Hunt). Shak.'s 'night's candles.'

l. 1969. Cf. l. 2487 _seq._ for the actual slayer of Ongenew, i.e. Eofor, to whom Hygelc gave his only daughter as a reward, l. 2998.

l. 1981. meodu-scencum = _with mead-pourers_ or _mead-cups_ (G., Ha.); _draught or cup of mead_ (Toller-Bosw.).

l. 1982. K., Th., W., H. supply [heal-]reced; Holler [he-].

l. 1984. B. defends the MS., reading h n (for hn), which he regards as = Heinir, the inhabitants of the Jutish "heaths" (h). Cf. H.-So., p. 107; _Beit._ xii. 9.

l. 1985. snne. "In poetry there is a reflexive possessive of the third person, sn (declined like mn). It is used not only as a true reflexive, but also as a non-reflexive (= Lat. _ejus_)"--Sw.; Cook's Sievers' Gram., p. 185. Cf. ll. 1508, 1961, 2284, 2790.

l. 1994. Cf. l. 190 for a similar use of se; cf. to "glow" with emotion, "boil" with indignation, "burn" with anger, etc. weallan is often so used; cf. ll. 2332, 2066, etc.

l. 2010. B. proposes fcne, = _in treachery_, for fenne. Cf. _Juliana_, l. 350; _Beit._ xii. 97.

l. 2022. Food of specific sorts is rarely, if at all, mentioned in the poem. Drink, on the other hand, occurs in its primitive varieties,--_ale_ (as here: ealu-wg), _mead, beer, wine, l_ (cider? Goth. _leius_, Prov. Ger. _leit-_ in _leit-haus_, ale-house), etc.

l. 2025. Kl. proposes is for ws.

l. 2027. Cf. l. 1599 for a similar use of weoran, = _agree, be pleased with_ (Ha.); _appear_ (Sw., Reader, 6th ed.).

ll. 2030, 2031. Ten Br. proposes: oft seldan ( = _gave_) wre fter led-hryre: lytle hwle bongr bge, eh se brd duge = _oft has a treaty been given after the fall of a prince: but little while the murder-spear resteth, however excellent the bride be._ Cf. Kl., _Beit._ ix. 190; B., _Beit._ xii. 369; R., _Zachers Zeitschr._ in. 404; Ha., p. 69; G., p. 62.

l. 2036. Cf. Kl, _Beit._ ix. 191; R., _Zachers Zeitschr._ iii. 404.

l. 2042. For beh B. reads b, = _both_, i.e. Freaware and the Dane.

l. 2063. Thorkelin and Conybeare propose wgende, = _fighting_, for lifigende.

l. 2068. W.'s edition begins section xxx. (not marked in the MS.) with this line. Section xxxix. (xxxviii. in copies A and B, xxxix. in Thorkelin) is not so designated in the MS., though (at l. 2822) is written with capitals and xl. begins at l. 2893.

l. 2095. Cf. l. 1542, and note.

l. 2115 _seq._ B. restores thus:

r on innan ging nia nthwylc, nede t gefng hnum horde; hond tgenam seleful since fh; n h t syan geaf, eh e h slpende besyrede hyrde efes crfte: t se iden onfand, b-folc beorna, t h gebolgen ws.

--_Beit._ xii. 99; _Zachers Zeitschr._ iv. 210.

l. 2128. tbr here = _bear away_, not given in the Gloss.

l. 2129. B. proposes frunga, = _suddenly_, for Gr.'s reading in the text.--_Beit._ xii. 98.

l. 2132. MS. has ine life, which Leo translates _by thy leave_ (= ON. _leyfi_); B., _by thy life_.--_Beit._ xii. 369.

l. 2150. B. renders gen, etc., by "now I serve thee alone again as my gracious king" (_Beit._ xii. 99).

l. 2151. The forms hafu [hafo], hafast, hafa, are poetic archaisms.--Sw.

l. 2153. Kl. proposes ealdor, = _prince_, for eafor. W. proposes the compd. eafor-hefodsegn, = _helm_; cf. l. 1245.

l. 2157. The wk. form of the adj. is frequent in the vocative, especially when postponed: "Beowulf lefa," l. 1759. So, often, in poetry in nom.: wudu selesta, etc.

l. 2158. rest is possibly the verbal subs. from rsan, _to arise, = arising, origin_. R. suggested rist, _arising, origin_. Cf. Bede, _Eccles. Hist._, ed. Miller, where the word is spelt as above, but = (as usual) _resurrection_. See Sweet, Reader, p. 211; E.-Plummer's _Chronicle_, p. 302, etc. The MS. has est. See Ha., p. 73; S., _Beit._ x. 222; and cf. l. 2166.

l. 2188. Gr., W., H. supply [wn]don, = _weened_, instead of Th.'s [oft sg]don.

l. 2188. The "slack" Beowulf, like the sluggish Brutus, ultimately reveals his true character, and is presented with a historic sword of honor. It is "laid on his breast" (l. 2195) as Hun laid Lfing on Hengest's breast, l. 1145.

l. 2188. "The boy was at first slothful, and the Geats thought him an unwarlike prince, and long despised him. Then, like many a lazy third son in the folk tales, a change came, he suddenly showed wonderful daring and was passionate for adventure."--Br., p. 22.

l. 2196. "Seven of thousands, manor and lordship" (Ha.). Kl., _Beit._ ix. 191, thinks with Ettm. that sendo means a hide of land (see Schmid, _Ges. der Angl_, 610), Bede's familia = 1/2 sq. meter; seofan being used (like hund, l. 2995) only for the alliteration.

l. 2196. "A vast Honour of 7000 hides, a mansion, and a judgment-seat" [throne].--E.

l. 2210. MS. has the more correct wintra.

l. 2211. Cf. similar language about the dragon at l. 100. Beowulf's "jubilee" is fitly solemnized by his third and last dragon-fight.

l. 2213. B. proposes s e on hearge hen hord beweotode; cf. Ha., p. 75.

l. 2215. "The dragon lies round the treasures in a cave, as Fafnir, like a Python, lay coiled over his hoard. So constant was this habit among the dragons that gold is called Worms' bed, Fafnir's couch, Worms' bed-fire. Even in India, the cobras ... are guardians of treasure."--Br., p. 50.

l. 2216. nede. E. translates _deftly_; Ha., _with ardor_. H.-So. reads nede, = _with desire, greedily_, instr. of ned.

l. 2223. E. begins his "Part Third" at this point as he begins "Part Second" at l. 1252, each dragon-fight forming part of a trilogy.

ll. 2224, 2225. B. proposes: nealles mid gewealdum wyrmes weard gst sylfes willum.--_Zachers Zeitschr._ iv. 211; _Beit._ xii. 100.

l. 2225. For ew read egn.--K. and Z.

l. 2225. ew, st. m., _slave, serf_ (not in H.-So.).

l. 2227. For ofer-earfe read rnes earfa.--Z.

ll. 2229-2231. B. proposes:

secg synbysig sna onwltode, eh m gyste gryrebrga std, hwre earmsceapen innganges earfa

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