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- The Evolution of Man, V.1. - 3/54 -


Blastosphere: the embryo in the hollow sphere stage. Blastula: same as preceding. Epiblast: the outer layer of the embryo (ectoderm). Hypoblast: the inner layer of the embryo (endoderm).

BRANCHIAL: pertaining to the gills (branchia).

CARYO-: (in compounds) pertaining to the nucleus (caryon); hence:-- Caryokineses: the movement of the nucleus. Caryolysis: dissolution of the nucleus. Caryoplasm: the matter of the nucleus.

CENTROLECITHAL: see under LECITH-.

CHORDARIA and CHORDONIA: animals with a dorsal chord or back-bone.

COELOM or COELOMA: the body-cavity in the embryo; hence:-- Coelenterata: animals without a body-cavity. Coelomaria: animals with a body-cavity. Coelomation: formation of the body-cavity.

CYTO-: (in compounds) pertaining to the cell (cytos); hence:-- Cytoblast: the nucleus of the cell. Cytodes: cell-like bodies, imperfect cells. Cytoplasm: the matter of the body of the cell. Cytosoma: the body (soma) of the cell.

CRYPTORCHISM: abnormal retention of the testicles in the body.

DEUTOPLASM: see PLASM.

DUALISM: the belief in the existence of two entirely distinct principles (such as matter and spirit).

DYSTELEOLOGY: the science of those features in organisms which refute the "design-argument."

ECTODERM: the outer (ekto) layer of the embryo.

ENTODERM: the inner (ento) layer of the embryo.

EPIDERM: the outer layer of the skin.

EPIGENESIS: the theory of gradual development of organs in the embryo.

EPIPHYSIS: the third or central eye in the early vertebrates.

EPISOMA: see SOMA.

EPITHELIA: tissues covering the surface of parts of the body (such as the mouth, etc.)

GONADS: the sexual glands.

GONOCHORISM: separation of the male and female sexes.

GONOTOMES: sections of the sexual glands.

GYNECOMAST: a male with the breasts (masta) of a woman (gyne).

HEPATIC: pertaining to the liver (hepar).

HOLOBLASTIC: embryos in which the animal and vegetal cells divide equally (holon = whole).

HYPERMASTISM: the possession of more than the normal breasts (masta).

HYPOBRANCHIAL: underneath (hypo) the gills.

HYPOPHYSIS: sensitive-offshoot from the brain in the vertebrate.

HYPOSOMA: see SOMA.

LECITH-: pertaining to the yelk (lecithus); hence:-- Centrolecithal: eggs with the yelk in the centre. Lecithoma: the yelk-sac. Telolecithal: eggs with the yelk at one end.

MEROBLASTIC: cleaving in part (meron) only.

META-: (in compounds) the "after" or secondary stage; hence:-- Metagaster: the secondary or permanent gut (gaster). Metaplasm: secondary or differentiated plasm. Metastoma: the secondary or permanent mouth (stoma). Metazoa: the higher or later animals, made up of many cells. Metovum: the mature or advanced ovum.

METAMERA: the segments into which the embryo breaks up.

METAMERISM: the segmentation of the embryo.

MONERA: the most primitive of the unicellular organisms.

MONISM: belief in the fundamental unity of all things.

MORPHOLOGY: the science of organic forms (generally equivalent to anatomy).

MYOTOMES: segments into which the muscles break up.

NEPHRA: the kidneys; hence:-- Nephridia: the rudimentary kidney-organs. Nephrotomes: the segments of the developing kidneys.

ONTOGENY: the science of the development of the individual (generally equivalent to embryology).

PERIGENESIS: the genesis of the movements in the vital particles.

PHAGOCYTES: cells that absorb food (phagein = to eat).

PHYLOGENY: the science of the evolution of species (phyla).

PLANOCYTES: cells that move about (planein).

PLASM: the colloid or jelly-like matter of which organisms are composed; hence:-- Caryoplasm: the matter of the nucleus (caryon). Cytoplasm: the matter of the body of the cell. Deutoplasm: secondary or differentiated plasm. Metaplasm: secondary or differentiated plasm. Protoplasm: primitive or undifferentiated plasm.

PLASSON: the simplest form of plasm.

PLASTIDULES: small particles of plasm.

POLYSPERMISM: the penetration of more than one sperm-cell into the ovum.

PRO- or PROT: (in compounds) the earlier form (opposed to META); hence:-- Prochorion: the first form of the chorion. Progaster: the first or primitive stomach. Pronephridia: the earlier form of the kidneys. Prorenal: the earlier form of the kidneys. Prostoma: the first or primitive mouth. Protists: the earliest or unicellular organisms. Provertebrae: the earliest phase of the vertebrae. Protophyta: the primitive or unicellular plants. Protoplasm: undifferentiated plasm. Protozoa: the primitive or unicellular animals.

RENAL: pertaining to the kidneys (renes).

SCATULATION: packing or boxing-up (scatula = a box).

SCLEROTOMES: segments into which the primitive skeleton falls.

SOMA: the body; hence:-- Cytosoma: the body of the cell (cytos). Episoma: the upper or back-half of the embryonic body. Somites: segments of the embryonic body. Hyposoma: the under or belly-half of the embryonic body.

TELEOLOGY: the belief in design and purpose (telos) in nature.

TELOLECITHAL: see LECITH-.

UMBILICAL: pertaining to the navel (umbilicus).

VITELLINE: pertaining to the yelk (vitellus).

***

PREFACE.

[BY JOSEPH MCCABE.]

The work which we now place within the reach of every reader of the English tongue is one of the finest productions of its distinguished author. The first edition appeared in 1874. At that time the conviction of man's natural evolution was even less advanced in Germany than in England, and the work raised a storm of controversy. Theologians--forgetting the commonest facts of our individual development--spoke with the most profound disdain of the theory that a Luther or a Goethe could be the outcome of development from a tiny speck of protoplasm. The work, one of the most distinguished of them said, was "a fleck of shame on the escutcheon of Germany." To-day its conclusion is accepted by influential clerics, such as the Dean of Westminster, and by almost every biologist and anthropologist of distinction in Europe. Evolution is not a laboriously reached conclusion, but a guiding truth, in biological literature to-day.

There was ample evidence to substantiate the conclusion even in the first edition of the book. But fresh facts have come to light in each decade, always enforcing the general truth of man's evolution, and at times making clearer the line of development. Professor Haeckel embodied these in successive editions of his work. In the fifth edition, of which this is a translation, reference will be found to the very latest facts bearing on the evolution of man, such as the discovery of the remarkable effect of mixing human blood with that of the anthropoid ape. Moreover, the ample series of illustrations has been considerably improved and enlarged; there is no scientific work published, at a price remotely approaching that of the present edition, with so abundant and excellent a supply of illustrations. When it was issued in Germany, a few years ago, a distinguished biologist wrote in the Frankfurter Zeitung that it would secure immortality for its author, the most notable critic of the idea of immortality. And the Daily Telegraph reviewer described the English


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