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- A Half-Century of Conflict, Volume II - 1/35 -


A HALF-CENTURY OF CONFLICT

BY FRANCIS PARKMAN

VOL. II

CONTENTS

CHAPTER XV.

1697-1741.

FRANCE IN THE FAR WEST.

French Explorers.--Le Sueur on the St. Peter's.--Canadians on the Missouri.--Juchereau de Saint-Denis.--Bénard de la Harpe on Red River.--Adventures of Du Tisné.--Bourgmont visits the Comanches.--The Brothers Mallet in Colorado and New Mexico.--Fabry de la Bruyère.

CHAPTER XVI.

1716-1761.

SEARCH FOR THE PACIFIC.

The Western Sea.--Schemes for reaching it.--Journey of Charlevoix.--The Sioux Mission.--Varennes de la Vérendrye.--His Enterprise.--His Disasters.--Visits the Mandans.--His Sons.--Their Search for the Western Sea.--Their Adventures.--The Snake Indians.--A Great War-Party.--The Rocky Mountains.--A Panic.--Return of the Brothers.--Their Wrongs and their Fate.

CHAPTER XVII.

1700-1750.

THE CHAIN OF POSTS.

Opposing Claims.--Attitude of the Rival Nations.--America a French Continent.--England a Usurper.--French Demands.--Magnanimous Proposals.--Warlike Preparation.--Niagara.--Oswego.--Crown Point.--The Passes of the West secured.

CHAPTER XVIII.

1744, 1745.

A MAD SCHEME.

War of the Austrian Succession.--The French seize Canseau and attack Annapolis.--Plan of Reprisal.--William Vanghan.--Governor Shirley.--He advises an Attack on Louisbourg.--The Assembly refuses, but at last consents.--Preparation.--William Pepperrell.--George Whitefield.--Parson Moody.--The Soldiers.--The Provincial Navy.--Commodore Warren.--Shirley as an Amateur Soldier.--The Fleet sails.

CHAPTER XIX.

1745.

LOUISBOURG BESIEGED.

Seth Pomeroy.--The Voyage.--Canseau.--Unexpected Succors.--Delays. --Louisbourg.--The Landing.--The Grand Battery taken.--French Cannon turned on the Town.--Weakness of Duchambon.--Sufferings of the Besiegers.--Their Hardihood.--Their Irregular Proceedings.--Joseph Sherburn.--Amateur Gunnery.--Camp Frolics.--Sectarian Zeal.--Perplexities of Pepperrell.

CHAPTER XX.

1745.

LOUISBOURG TAKEN.

A Rash Resolution.--The Island Battery.--The Volunteers.--The Attack.--The Repulse.--Capture of the "Vigilant."--A Sortie.--Skirmishes.--Despondency of the French.--English Camp threatened.--Pepperrell and Warren.--Warren's Plan.--Preparation for a General Attack.--Flag of Truce.--Capitulation. --State of the Fortress.--Parson Moody.--Soldiers dissatisfied.--Disorders. --Army and Navy.--Rejoicings.--England repays Provincial Outlays.

CHAPTER XXI.

1745-1747.

DUC D'ANVILLE.

Louisbourg after the Conquest.--Mutiny.--Pestilence.--Stephen Williams.--His Diary.--Scheme of conquering Canada.--Newcastle's Promises.--Alarm in Canada.--Promises broken.--Plan against Crown Point.--Startling News.--D'Anville's Fleet.--Louisbourg to be avenged.--Disasters of D'Anville.--Storm.--Pestilence.--Famine.--Death of D'Anville.--Suicide of the Vice-Admiral.--Ruinous Failure.--Return Voyage.--Defeat of La Jonquière.

CHAPTER XXII.

1745-1747.

ACADIAN CONFLICTS.

Efforts of France.--Apathy of Newcastle.--Dilemma of Acadians.--Their Character.--Danger of the Province.--Plans of Shirley.--Acadian Priests.--Political Agitators.--Noble's Expedition.--Ramesay at Beaubassin.--Noble at Grand-Pré.--A Winter March.--Defeat and Death of Noble.--Grand-Pré re-occupied by the English.--Threats of Ramesay against the Acadians.--The British Ministry will not protect them.

CHAPTER XXIII.

1740-1747.

WAR AND POLITICS.

Governor and Assembly.--Saratoga destroyed.--William Johnson.--Border Ravages.--Upper Ashuelot.--French "Military Movements."--Number Four.--Niverville's Attack.--Phineas Stevens.--The French repulsed.

CHAPTER XXIV.

1745-1748.

FORT MASSACHUSETTS.

Frontier Defence.--Northfield and its Minister.--Military Criticisms of Rev. Benjamin Doolittle.--Rigaud de Vaudreuil.--His Great War-Party.--He attacks Fort Massachusetts.--Sergeant Hawks and his Garrison.--A Gallant Defence.--Capitulation.--Humanity of the French.--Ravages.--Return to Crown Point.--Peace of Aix-la Chapelle.

APPENDIX.

A. FRANCE CLAIMS ALL NORTH AMERICA EXCEPT THE SPANISH COLONIES.

B. FRENCH VIEWS OF THE SIEGE OF LOUISBOURG.

C. SHIRLEY'S RELATIONS WITH THE ACADIANS.

A HALF-CENTURY OF CONFLICT.

CHAPTER XV.

1697-1741.

FRANCE IN THE FAR WEST.

FRENCH EXPLORERS.--LE SUEUR ON THE ST. PETER'S.--CANADIANS ON THE MISSOURI.--JUCHEREAU DE SAINT-DENIS.--BÉNARD DE LA HARPE ON RED RIVER.--ADVENTURES OF DU TISNÉ.--BOURGMONT VISITS THE COMANCHES.--THE BROTHERS MALLET IN COLORADO AND NEW MEXICO.--FABRY DE LA BRUYÈRE.

The occupation by France of the lower Mississippi gave a strong impulse to the exploration of the West, by supplying a base for discovery, stimulating enterprise by the longing to find gold mines, open trade with New Mexico, and get a fast hold on the countries beyond the Mississippi in anticipation of Spain; and to these motives was soon added the hope of finding an overland way to the Pacific. It was the Canadians, with their indomitable spirit of adventure, who led the way in the path of discovery.

As a bold and hardy pioneer of the wilderness, the Frenchman in America has rarely found his match. His civic virtues withered under the despotism of Versailles, and his mind and conscience were kept in leading-strings by an absolute Church; but the forest and the prairie offered him an unbridled liberty, which, lawless as it was, gave scope to his energies, till these savage wastes became the field of his most noteworthy achievements.

Canada was divided between two opposing influences. On the one side were the monarchy and the hierarchy, with their principles of order, subordination, and obedience; substantially at one in purpose, since both wished to keep the colony within manageable bounds, domesticate it, and tame it to soberness, regularity, and obedience. On the other side was the spirit of liberty, or license, which was in the very air of this wilderness continent, reinforced in the chiefs of the colony by a spirit of adventure inherited from the Middle Ages, and by a spirit of trade born of present opportunities; for every official in Canada hoped to make a profit, if not a fortune, out of beaverskins. Kindred impulses, in ruder forms, possessed the humbler colonists, drove them into the forest, and made them hardy woodsmen and skilful bushfighters, though turbulent and lawless members of civilized society.


A Half-Century of Conflict, Volume II - 1/35

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