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- Civil Government for Common Schools - 1/15 -


CIVIL GOVERNMENT FOR COMMON SCHOOLS.

PREPARED AS A MANUAL FOR PUBLIC INSTRUCTION IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK.

To which are appended the Constitution of the State of New York as amended at the election of 1880, the Constitution of the United States, and the Declaration of Independence.

BY HENRY C. NORTHAM,

CONDUCTOR OF TEACHERS' INSTITUTES.

PREFACE TO THIRD EDITION.

Instruction in Civil Government should be both theoretical and practical. Unfortunately the text-books in general use stop with the theory.

They deal with the science of government, but, being intended for use throughout the United States, they give no information as to the ART of government as practiced in this State.

Our students learn what is the guaranty of Republican government, but not how that government is exercised in their own town.

They are drilled in Incorporeal Hereditaments, but do not learn what kind of causes can be tried before a Justice of the Peace.

To supply this deficiency, is the aim of the present manual. Beginning with the school district, the names, manner of election, duties, and salaries are given of all important officers from the school trustee to the President of the United States.

The rapid sale of the First and Second Editions of this book encourages the hope that, with the additions now made, this manual may be considered indispensable in every PROGRESSIVE school in the State of New York.

HENRY C. NORTHAM. LOWVILLE, April 22, 1878.

I.--INTRODUCTION.

Officers are elected to administer the government for

I. The United State II. Each State III. Counties. IV. Cities V. Towns VI. Districts

The following are names given to some of the different kinds of districts in the State of N. York

I. Road, School and Election Districts. II. School Commissioner Districts. III. Assembly districts IV. Senatorial districts V. Congressional districts VI. Judicial districts

QUESTION. Which are the smallest districts named?

A. Road, School and Election districts.

Q. What is a road district?

A. A portion of a town placed under the charge of an officer, whose duty it is to see that the roads are kept in good condition.

Q. What is a school district?

A. A portion of a town or city, placed under the care of officers, whose duties are to maintain a public school in and for the district

Q. What is an Election district?

A. A whole or part of a town, in which all the voting is done at one poll.

Q. What is a School commissioner district?

A. A whole or a portion of a county, under the jurisdiction of a school commissioner.

Q. What is an Assembly district?

A. A whole or a portion of a county set off for the purpose of electing a "Member of the Assembly," except Fulton and Hamilton, which together form one district, and elect one member.

Q. What is a Senatorial district?

A. A portion of a county, a whole county, or several counties combined for the purpose of electing a Senator; the amount of territory depending upon population.

Q. What is a Congressional district?

A. A portion of a county, a whole county, or several counties combined for the purpose of electing a "Representative in Congress;" the amount of territory depending upon population.

Q. What is a Judicial district?

A. One county (as in the case of New York), or several counties united for the purpose of electing Supreme Court Judges.

Q. Name the civil divisions in regular order and tell what a combination of each forms?

A. Road and school districts form towns; towns when united form counties; counties when united form a State; and also in many instances, Senatorial, Congressional and Judicial districts. States when united form a Union.

Q. How many States are there?

A. Thirty-eight.

Q. How many counties in New York State?

A. Sixty.

Q. How many towns in New York State?

A. Nine hundred and forty; the number is changing from year to year; the exact number can be found by consulting the almanacs that give the election returns.

Q. How many cities in the State of New York?

A. Twenty.

Q. How many School Commissioner districts in New York State?

A One hundred and twelve.

Q. How many Assembly districts?

A. One hundred and twenty-eight.

Q. How many Senatorial districts?

A. Thirty two.

Q. How many Judicial districts?

A. Eight.

Q. How many Congressional districts?

A. Thirty-three.

Q. How many School districts in New York State?

A. About twelve thousand.

Q. By what authority are counties organized?

A. By the State Legislature.

Q. How are Towns formed?

A. By an act of the board of supervisors.

Q. By whom are School districts formed?

A. Generally by the school commissioners, sometimes assisted by the supervisor and town clerk of the town; sometimes by special legislation.

Q. What power defines the number of Assembly, Senatorial and Judicial districts?

A. The State Constitution.

Q. What power decides upon the number of Congressional districts?

A. The Congress of the United States.

NOTE--The following table will be the guide for questioning through all the succeeding pages:

I. Name of office

II. Number of Officials holding the same office at the same time.


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