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PICTURESQUE QUEBEC

BY

J. M. LEMOINE

TO THE CITIZENS OF QUEBEC

THIS VOLUME IS

Respectfully Inscribed

BY THE AUTHOR.

PREFACE

This volume, purporting to be a sequel to "QUEBEC PAST AND PRESENT," published in 1876, is intended to complete the history of the city. New and interesting details will be found in these pages, about the locality, where Samuel de Champlain located his settlement in 1608, together with a rapid glance at incidents, sights, objects, edifices, city gates and other improvements, both ancient and modern, which an antiquarian's ramble round the streets, squares, promenades, monuments, public and private edifices, &c., may disclose. It will, it is hoped, be found a copious repository of historical, topographical, legendary, industrial and antiquarian lore-- garnered not without some trouble from authorities difficult of access to the general reader. May it prove not merely a faithful mirror of the past, but also an authentic record of the present!

THE SKETCH OF THE ENVIRONS OF QUEBEC will take the tourist or student of history beyond the ramparts of Old Stadacona, to the memorable area--the Plains of Abraham--where, one century back and more, took place the hard- fought duel which caused the collapse of French power in the New World, established British rule on our shores, and hastened the birth of the great Commonwealth founded by George Washington, by removing from the British Provinces, south of us, the counterpoise of French dominion. More than once French Canada had threatened the New England Settlements; more than once it had acted like a barrier to the expansion and consolidation of the conquering Anglo-Saxon race.

THE ENVIRONS OF QUEBEC are, indeed, classic soil, trodden by the footsteps of many of the most remarkable men in American History: Cartier, Champlain, Phipps, d'Iberville, Laval, Frontenac, La Galissonnère, Wolfe, Montcalm, Levis, Amherst, Murray, Guy Carleton, Nelson, Cook, Bougainville, Jervis, Montgomery, Arnold, DeSalaberry, Brock and others. Here, in early times, on the shore of the majestic St. Lawrence, stood the wigwam and canoe of the marauding savage; here, was heard the clang of French sabre and Scotch claymore in deadly encounter--the din of battle on the tented field; here,--but no further--had surged the wave of American invasion; here, have bivouaced on more than one gory battle- field, the gay warrior from the banks of the Seine, the staunch musketeers of Old England, the unerring riflemen of New York, Massachusetts and Rhode Island. Another spot calculated to interest us is the vast expanse from the Plains to Cap Rouge, round by Ste. Foye to the city, for which I intend to use its former more general name, Sillery: the ground is not new for us, as its annals and country seats furnished, in 1865, materials for sketches, published that year under the title of _Maple Leaves_. These sketches having long since disappeared from book-stores, at the request of several enlightened patrons, I re-publish from them some selections, with anecdotes and annotations. Several other sites round Quebec--Beauport, Charlesbourg, the Falls of Montmorency and of the Chaudière, Château Bigot, Lorette and its Hurons--will, of necessity, find a resting place in this repertory of Quebec history, which closes a labour of love, the series of works on Canada, commenced by me in 1861.

In order to enhance the usefulness of this work, extensive and varied historical matter has been included in the appendix for reference.

To my many friends, whose notes and advice have been so freely placed at my disposal, I return my grateful thanks.

J. M. LEMOINE. SPENCER GRANGE, December, 1881.

CONTENTS

CHAPTER I.

FIRST IMPRESSIONS OF QUEBEC

Quebec as seen by Tourists--Descriptions--by Francis Parkman--M. Sand-- Eliot Warburton--Thoreau--Mrs. Moodie--Charles Dickens--Marmier--Sir Charles Dilke--Henry Ward Beecher--Professor Silliman--Charles Lever-- Capt. Butler--Alfred Hawkins--Hon. P. J. O. Chauveau.

CHAPTER II.

FOUNDATION OF QUEBEC.

Samuel de Champlain--_L'Abitation_--the Dwelling of Champlain--Chief Donaconna--Jacques Cartier's Landing--Interview between Cartier and Donaconna.

CHAPTER III.

THE ANCIENT CAPITAL.

Streets and By-ways of the Old City--Names of Famous Men preserved by Street Names--Dangerous Streets.

THE UPPER TOWN.

Louis Hébert, the First Resident--The First Street--The First Horse-- Marquis de Tracy--St. Louis Street--The Quebec Gazette--William Brown-- Samuel Neilson--Dr. Wilkie--Lawyers--Madame Péan--Montgomery's Assault-- Death of Montcalm--SOCIETY IN EARLY ENGLISH TIMES--Theatre--Early Society Poets--Literature--United Empire Loyalists,--ST. LOUIS HOTEL--THE FRÉCHETTE DINNER--Mr. Fréchette's Speech--Mr. Lamier's Speech--Mr. Stewart's Speech--Mr. LeMay's, Speech---Mr. LeMoine's Speech---FORT ST. LOUIS--CHÂTEAU ST. LOUIS--HALDIMAND CASTLE--The Council--Dress of the Councillors--A Braggart Mohawk Hanged--The New Château--Fealty and Homage--Re-building by Frontenac--Quebec Agricultural Society--The Loyal League--An Antique Stone--Lord Edward Fitzgerald--The Duke of Richmond-- Sir Peregrine Maitland--John Galt--Lord Dorchester--Isaac Weld--Dufferin Terrace--Laying of Corner Stone--Rev. Dr. Sparks--St. Andrew's Church-- The Lymburners--Hugh McQuarters James Thompson--The Rosses--The Georges-- Parloir Street--Jupiter Street--St. George Street--LAVAL UNIVERSITY-- Palace Street--Statue of General Wolfe--St. Famille Street--St. Stanislas Street--Trinity Chapel--Theatre Royal--THE LITERARY AND HISTORICAL SOCIETY--Mr. LeMoine's Lecture on Arnold's Assault--The Centenary Fete-- The Jesuit's Church--The Jesuit's Barracks--The Récollet Convent--The Palace--Couillard Street--The Union Hotel--The Prisoners of 1812--Bell's Cavalry--Rue du Trésor--Royal Notaries--St. John Street--Le Club des Anciens--La Crucifix Outragé--Olden Times in the Ancient Capital--Durham Terrace.

THE LOWER TOWN.

Le Chien d'Or--The Elevator--Mountain Hill--Landing of the Marquis de Tracy--Landing of the Earl of Durham--The Inconstants--St. Peter Street-- Jean Taché--The Chronicle Building--The Neptune Inn--Press Gangs at Quebec--Notre Dame Des Victoires--Notre Dame Street--Dalhousie Street--- Public Whipping--Sous-le-Fort Street--The Cul-de-Sac--The King's Wharf--A Fighting Stevedore--M. Marmier--Sault-au-Matelot Street--Dog Lane--St. Paul Street--Pointe à Carcy--The Duke of Saxe Weimar.

ST. ROCH'S SUBURBS.

La Friponne--The Intendant Bigot--The Intendant's Palace--La Vacherie-- Côte à Coton--St. Valier Street--The Blue House--Horatio Nelson in Quebec --Dorchester Bridge--Crown Street--The Harbour Docks--The Graving Dock at Levis.

THE GATES OF QUEBEC.

The New Gates--The Kent Gate--The Citadel Gates--Theller and Dodge's Escape from the Citadel--The Men of '37.

CHAPTER IV.

SUBURBS OF QUEBEC.

St. Louis Road--Parliament Buildings--Bleak House--Martello Towers-- Buttes-à-Nepveu--Wolfe's Landing Place--Ste. Foye Road--Association Hall.

CHAPTER V.

MODERN QUEBEC.

City Government--Boundaries of the Wards--War Department Property.

PART II.

THE ENVIRONS OF QUEBEC. SILLERY OUR COUNTRY SEATS THE PLAINS OF ABRAHAM THE BATTLE-FIELD BATTLE-FIELD PARK THE DUKE OF KENT'S LODGE--MONTMORENCI L'ASYLE CHAMPÊTRE MARCHMONT--Anecdote of Wolfe's Army WOLFESFIELD--Carlyle's Account of the Capture of Quebec ELM GROVE THORNHILL SPENCER WOOD--The Perceval Family--A Fête Champêtre in 1809 SPENCER GRANGE--Audubon at Quebec


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