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- Himalayan Journals V2. - 60/94 -


2. Mineral water, hot springs, Yeumtong, altitude 11,730 feet (see vol. ii., chap. xxii). Disengages sulphuretted hydrogen when fresh.--This water was inodorous when the bottle was opened. The saline matter in solution was considerably less than in the Soorujkoond water, but like that consisted of chloride of sodium and sulphate of soda. Its alkaline character suggests the probability of its containing carbonate of soda, but none was detected.

The rocks decomposed by the waters of the spring consist of granite impregnated with sulphate of alumina. It appears that in this case the sulphurous waters of Yeumtong became impregnated in the air with sulphuric acid, which decomposed the felspar,* [I have, in my journal, particularly alluded to the garnets (an aluminous mineral) being thus entirely decomposed.-J.D.H.] and united with its alumina. I found traces only of potash in the salt.

Sulphuretted hydrogen waters appear to give origin to sulphuric acid, when the water impregnated with the gas reaches the surface; and I have fine fibrous specimens of sulphate of lime accompanied with sulphur, from the hot springs of Pugha in west Tibet, brought by Dr. T. Thomson.

3. Mineral water, Momay hot springs, (vol. ii., chap. xxii).--When the bottle was uncorked, a strong smell of sulphuretted hydrogen was perceived. The water contains about twenty-five grains per imp. gallon, of chloride of sodium, sulphate and carbonate of soda; the reaction being strongly alkaline when the solution was concentrated.

4. Effloresced earth from Behar (vol. i., chap. i), consists of granite sand, mixed with sesquicarbonate of soda.

_On the Indian Algae which occur principally in different parts of the Himalayan Range, in the hot-sprinys of Soorujkoond in Bengal, Pugha in Tibet, and Momay in Sikkim; and on the Fungi of the Himalayas. By the Rev. M. J. Berkeley, M.A.

It is not my intention in the present appendix to give specific characters or even accurately determined specific names to the different objects within its scope, which have come under investigation, as collected by Dr. Hooker and Dr. Thomson. To do so would require far more time than I have at present been able to devote to the subject, for though every species has been examined microscopically, either by myself or Mr. Broome, and working sketches secured at the same time, the specific determination of fresh water Algae from Herbarium specimens is a matter which requires a very long and accurate comparison of samples from every available locality, and in the case of such genera as _Zygnema, Tyndaridea,_ and _Conferva,_ is, after all, not a very satisfactory process.

The object in view is merely to give some general notion of the forms which presented themselves in the vast districts visited by the above-mentioned botanists, comprising localities of the greatest possible difference as regards both temperature and elevation; but more especially in the hot-springs which occur in two distant parts of the Himalayas and in Behar, and these again under very different degrees of elevation and of extrinsic temperature.

The Algae from lower localities are but few in number, and some of these of very common forms. We have for instance from the Ganges, opposite Bijnour, a _Batrachospermum_ and _Conferva crispata,_ the former purple below, with specimens of _Chantransia,_ exactly as they might occur in the Thames. The _Conferva,_ or more properly _Cladophora,_ which occurs also under various forms, at higher elevations, as in the neighbourhood of Simla and Iskardo, swarms with little parasites, but of common or uninteresting species. In the Bijnour specimens, these consist of common forms of _Synedra, Meridion circulare,_ and a _Cymbella,_ on others from Dacca, there are about three species of _Synedra,_* {Two of these appear to be _S. Vaucheriae_ and _S. inaequalis._] a minute _Navicula_ and _Gomphonema curvatum._ Nothing, in fact, can well be more European. One splendid Alga, however, occurs at Fitcoree, in Behar, on the banks of nullahs, which are dry in hot weather, forming a purple fleece of coarse woolly hairs, which are singularly compressed, and of extreme beauty under the microscope, from the crystalline green of the articulated string which threads the bright red investing sheath. This curious Alga calls to mind in its colouring _Caenocoleus Smithii,_ figured in English Botany, t. 2940, but it has not the common sheath of that Alga, and is on a far larger scale. One or two other allied forms, or species, occur in East Nepal, to which I purpose giving, together with the Behar plant, the generic name of _Erythronema._ From the Soane River, also, is an interesting Alga, belonging to the curious genus _Thwaitesia,_ in which the division of the endochrome in the fertile cells into four distinct masses, sometimes entirely free, is beautifully marked. In some cases, indeed, instead of the ordinary spores, the whole moss is broken up into numerous bodies, as in the fertile joints of _Ulothrix,_ and probably, as in that case, the resultant corpuscles are endowed with active motion. In Silhet, again, is a magnificent _Zygnema,_ allied to _Z. nitidum,_ with large oval spores, about 1/285 part of an inch long, and a dark golden brown colour, and containing a spiral green endochrome.

Leaving, however, the lower parts of India, I shall first take the species which occur in Khasia, Sikkim, Eastern Nepal, and the adjoining parts of Tibet.

In the hot valleys of the Gtreat Rungeet, at an elevation of about 2000 feet, we have the _Erythronema,_ but under a slightly different form; at Nunklow, at about the same height; in Khasia, again, at twice that elevation; in Eastern Nepal, at 12,000; and, finally, at Momay, reaching up to 16,000 feet. In water, highly impregnated with oxide of iron, at 4000 feet in Sikkim, a _Leptothrix_ occurred in great abundance, coloured with the oxide, exactly as is the case with Algae which grow in iron springs in Europe. At elevations between 5000 and 7000 feet, several European forms occur, consisting of _Ulothrix, Zygnema, Oscillatoria, Lyngbya, Sphaerozyga, Scytonema, Conferva,_ and _Cladophora._ The species may indeed not be identical with European species, but they are all more or less closely allied to well-known Hydrophytes. One very interesting form, however, either belonging to the genus _Zygnema,_ or possibly constituting a distinct genus, occurs in streams at 5000 feet in Sikkim, consisting of highly gelatinous threads of the normal structure of the _Zygnema,_ but forming a reticulated mass. The threads adhere to each other laterally, containing only a single spiral endochrome, and the articulations are very long. Amongst the threads are mixed those of some species of _Tyndaridea._ There is also a curious _Hormosiphon,_ at a height of 7000 feet; forming anastomosing gelatinous masses. A fine new species of _Lyngbya_ extends up as high as 11,000 feet. At 13,000 feet occurs either some simple _Conferva_ or _Zygnema,_ it is doubtful which from the condition of the specimens; and at the same elevation, in the nearly dry bed of the stream which flows from the larger lake at Momay, amongst flat cakes, consisting of felspathic silt from the glaciers above, and the debris of Algae, and abounding in Diatomaceae, some threads of a _Zygnema._ At 17,000 feet, an _Oscillatoria,_ attached or adherent to _Zannichellia_; and, finally, on the bare ground, at 18,000 feet, on the Donkia mountains, an obscure species of _Caenocoleus._ On the surface of the glaciers at Kinchinjhow, on silt, there is a curious _Palmella,_ apparently quite distinct from any European form.

Amongst the greater part of the Algae, from 4000 feet to 18,000 feet, various Diatomaceae occur, which will be best noticed in a tabular form, as follows; the specific name, within brackets, merely indicating the species to which they bear most resemblance:--

Himantidium (_Soleirolii_) 4000 to 7000 ft. Sikkim Odontidium (_hiemale,_ forma minor) 5000 to 7000 ft. Sikkim Epithemia, _n. sp._ 7000 ft. Sikkim Cymbella -- Sikkim Navicula, _n. sp._ -- Sikkim Tabillaria (_flocculosa_) 6000 to 7000 ft. Sikkim Odontidium (_hiemale_) 11,000 ft. Sikkim Himantidium 16,000 ft. Momay Odontidium (_turgidulum_) 17,000 ft. Momay Epithemia (_ocellata_) -- Tibet Fragillaria 18,000 ft. Momay Odontidium (_turgidulum_) -- Momay Dictyocha (_gracilis_) -- Momay Odontidium (_hiemale_) -- Kinchinjhow

We now turn to those portions of Tibet or the neighbouring regions, explored by Dr. Thomson and Captain Strachey. The principal feature in the Algology is the great prevalence of species of _Zygnema_ and _Tyndaridea,_ which occur under a variety of forms, sometimes with very thick gelatinous coats. In not a single instance, however, is there the slightest tendency to produce fructification. _Conferva crispata_ again, as mentioned above, occurs in several localities; and in one locality a beautiful unbranched _Conferva,_ with torulose articulations. At Iskardo, Dr. Thomson gathered a very gelatinous species of _Draparnaldia,_ or more properly, a _Stygeoclonium,_ if we may judge from a little conglomeration of cells which appeared amongst the threads. A _Tetraspora_ in Piti, an obscure _Tolypothrix,_ and one or two _Oscillatoriae,_ remarkable for their interrupted mode of growth, complete the list of Algae, with the exception of one, to be mentioned presently; as also of _Diatomaceae,_ and of the species of _Nostoc_ and _Hormosiphon,_ which occurred in great profusion, and under several forms, sometimes attaining a very large size (several inches across), especially in the districts of Le and Piti, and where the soil or waters were impregnated with saline matters. It is well known that some species of _Nostoc_ form an article of food in China, and one was used for that purpose in a late Arctic expedition, as reported by Dr. Sutherland; but it does not seem that any use is made of them in Tibet, though probably all the large species would form tolerable articles of food, and certainly, from their chemical composition, prove very nutritious. One species is mentioned by Dr. Thomson as floating, without any attachment, in the shallow water of the pools scattered over the plains, on the Parang River, separated only by a ridge of mountains from Piti, broad and foliaceous, and scarcely different from the common _Nostoc,_ which occurs in all parts of the globe. I must not, however, neglect to record a very singular new genus, in which the young threads have the characters of _Tyndaridea,_ but, after a time, little swellings occur on their sides, in which a distinct endochrome is formed, extending backwards into the parent endochrome, separated from it by a well defined membrane, and producing, either by repeated pullulation, a compound mass like that of _Calothrix,_ or simply giving rise to a forked thread. In the latter case, however, there is no external swelling, but a lateral endochrome is formed, which, as it grows, makes its way through an aperture, whose sides are regularly inflected. I have given to this curious production the name of _Cladozygia Thomsoni._

The whole of the above Algae occurred at heights varying from 10,000 to 15,500 feet. As in the Southern Himalayan Algae, the specimens were infested with many Diatomaceae, amongst which the moat conspicuous were various _Cymbellae_ and _Epithemiae. The following is a list of the species observed.


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