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- Himalayan Journals V2. - 70/94 -


of 17,000 and 18,000 feet, is no doubt proximately due to the evolution of heat during the condensation of these vapours. It will be seen by the pages of my journal, that continued sunshine, and the consequent heating of the soil, is almost unknown during the summer, at any elevation on the outer or southward ranges of Dorjiling: but the sunk thermometer proves that in advancing northward into the heart of the mountains and ascending, the sun's effect is increased, the temperature of the earth becoming in summer considerably higher than that of the air. With regard to the observations themselves, they may be depended upon as comparable with those of Calcutta, the instruments having been carefully compared, and the cases of interpolation being few. The number of observations taken at each station is recorded in a separate column; where only one is thus recorded, it is not to be regarded as a single reading, but the mean, of several taken during an hour or longer period. I have rejected all solitary observations, even when accompanied by others at Calcutta; and sundry that were, for obvious reasons, likely to mislead. Where many observations were taken at one place, I have divided them into sets, corresponding to the hours at which alone the Calcutta temperature and wet-bulb thermometer are recorded,* [Sunrise; 9.50 a.m.; noon; 2.40 p.m.; 4 p.m., and sunset.] in order that meteorologists may apply them to the solution of other questions relating to the distribution of heat and moisture. The Dorjiling observations, and those in the immediate neighbourhood of that station, appeared to me sufficiently numerous to render it worth while classing them in months, and keeping them in a series by themselves. The tensions of vapour are worked from the wet-bulb readings by Apjohn's formula and tables, corrected for the height of the barometer at the time. The observations, except where otherwise noted, are taken by myself.

SERIES I. _Observations made at or near Dorjiling._

JANUARY, 1849

DORJILING No. of Obs. Place Elev. Hour Tp. D.P. Diff. Tens. --------------------------------------------------------------------- 15 The Dale* 6956 ft. 9.50 a.m. 42.9 32.4 10.5 .202 15 Mr. Muller's ... Noon 45.8 33.8 12.0 .212 10 ... ... 2.40 p.m. 48.3 37.4 10.9 .241 8 ... ... 4 p.m. 48.6 37.8 10.8 .244 9 ... ... Sunset 46.5 37.1 9.4 .238 --------------------------------------------------------------------- 57 ... ... Mean 46.4 35.7 10.7 .227 ---------------------------------------------------------------------

CALCUTTA No. of Obs. Place Elev. Hour Tp. D.P. Diff. Tens. --------------------------------------------------------------------- 15 The Dale* 6956 ft. 9.50 a.m. 67.5 55.3 12.2 .446 15 Mr. Muller's ... Noon 72.9 55.7 17.2 .455 10 ... ... 2.40 p.m. 76.1 55.1 21.0 .444 8 ... ... 4 p.m. 75.1 54.8 20.3 .440 9 ... ... Sunset 71.8 54.9 16.9 .441 --------------------------------------------------------------------- 57 ... ... Mean 72.7 55.2 17.5 .445 ---------------------------------------------------------------------

*Observations to which the asterisk is affixed were taken by Mr. Muller.

Dorjiling.--Humidity 0.700 Calcutta 0.562 ,, Vapour in cubic foot of atmosphere 2.63 gr. ,, 4.86 gr.

JANUARY, 1850 DORJILING No. of Obs. Place Elev. Hour Tp. D.P. Diff. Tens. --------------------------------------------------------------------- 3 Jillapahar, 7430 ft. Sunrise 32.8 30.1 2.7 .186 6 Mr. Hodgson's ... 9.50 a.m. 39.5 34.7 4.8 .219 3 ... ... Noon 42.4 38.0 4.4 .246 5 ... ... 2.40 p.m. 41.9 37.8 4.1 .244 5 ... ... 4 p.m. 41.1 38.5 2.6 .250 5 ... ... Sunset 38.7 35.6 3.1 .226 13 ... ... Miscel. 41.9 39.9 2.0 .263 4 Saddle of road 7412 ft. Do. 41.1 36.4 4.7 .233 at Sinchul. 1 Pacheem. 7258 ft. Do. 39.8 38.7 1.1 .252 --------------------------------------------------------------------- 45 ... ... Mean 39.9 36.6 3.3 .235 ---------------------------------------------------------------------

CALCUTTA No. of Obs. Place Elev. Hour Tp. D.P. Diff. Tens. --------------------------------------------------------------------- 3 Jillapahar, 7430 ft. Sunrise 51.5 48.5 3.0 .354 6 Mr. Hodgson's ... 9.50 a.m. 66.9 55.1 11.8 .444 3 ... ... Noon 74.1 51.7 22.4 .395 5 ... ... 2.40 p.m. 78.3 51.4 26.9 .391 5 ... ... 4 p.m. 77.4 59.5 17.9 .514 5 ... ... Sunset 72.4 54.7 17.7 .438 13 ... ... Miscel. 77.9 60.1 17.8 .525 4 Saddle of road 7412 ft. Do. 67.7 57.2 10.5 .476 at Sinchul. 1 Pacheem. 7258 ft. Do. 71.6 50.5 21.2 .379 --------------------------------------------------------------------- 45 ... ... Mean 70.9 54.3 16.6 .435 ---------------------------------------------------------------------

Dorjiling.--Humidity 0.890 Calcutta 0.580 ,, Weight of vapour 2.75 gr. ,, 4.86 gr.

FEBRUARY DORJILING No. of Obs. Place Elev. Hour Tp. D.P. Diff. Tens. --------------------------------------------------------------------- 3 Jillapahar, 7430 ft. Sunrise 36.9 34.7 2.2 .219 18 1850 ... 9.50 a.m. 42.9 38.6 4.3 .251 12 ... ... Noon 44.8 41.3 3.5 .276 12 ... ... 2.40 p.m. 44.8 37.4 7.4 .241 17 ... ... 4 p.m. 44.0 35.6 8.4 .226 19 ... ... Sunset 42.4 35.8 6.6 .228 13 The Dale* 6956 ft. Miscel. 40.8 35.1 5.7 .222 --------------------------------------------------------------------- 97 ... ... Mean 42.4 36.9 5.4 .238 ---------------------------------------------------------------------

CALCUTTA No. of Obs. Place Elev. Hour Tp. D.P. Diff. Tens. --------------------------------------------------------------------- 3 Jillapahar, 7430 ft. Sunrise 60.0 54.2 5.8 .431 18 1850 ... 9.50 a.m. 72.8 58.8 14.0 .503 12 ... ... Noon 79.8 58.7 21.2 .501 12 ... ... 2.40 p.m. 82.4 57.9 24.5 .487 17 ... ... 4 p.m. 81.1 58.1 23.0 .492 19 ... ... Sunset 76.3 60.7 15.6 .536 13 The Dale* 6956 ft. Miscel. 69.9 59.8 10.1 .518 --------------------------------------------------------------------- 97 ... ... Mean 74.6 58.3 16.3 .495 ---------------------------------------------------------------------

Dorjiling.--Humidity 0.828 Calcutta 0.590 ,, Weight of vapour 2.75 gr. ,, 5.40 gr.

MARCH DORJILING No. of Obs. Place Elev. Hour Tp. D.P. Diff. Tens. --------------------------------------------------------------------- 10 Jillapahar, 7430 ft. 9.50 a.m. 44.2 42.7 1.5 .290 8 1850 ... Noon 45.5 43.0 2.5 .293 5 ... ... 2.40 p.m. 46.4 44.0 2.4 .303 8 ... ... 4 p.m. 45.5 43.4 2.1 .297 6 ... ... Sunset 43.1 41.5 1.6 .278 3 Pacheem. 7258 ft. Misc. 44.8 44.6 0.2 .310 --------------------------------------------------------------------- 40 ... ... Mean 44.9 43.2 1.7 .295 ---------------------------------------------------------------------

CALCUTTA No. of Obs. Place Elev. Hour Tp. D.P. Diff. Tens. --------------------------------------------------------------------- 10 Jillapahar, 7430 ft. 9.50 a.m. 81.6 64.1 17.5 .602 8 1850 ... Noon 88.2 57.0 31.2 .472 5 ... ... 2.40 p.m. 91.3 53.2 38.1 .416 8 ... ... 4 p.m. 90.1 52.0 38.1 .399 6 ... ... Sunset 82.9 63.7 19.2 .590 3 Pacheem. 7258 ft. Misc. 85.0 74.8 10.2 .848 --------------------------------------------------------------------- 40 ... ... Mean 86.5 60.8 25.7 .555 ---------------------------------------------------------------------

Dorjiling.--Humidity 0.940 Calcutta 0.438 ,, Weight of vapour 3.42 gr. ,, 5.72 gr.

APRIL DORJILING No. of Obs. Place Elev. Hour Tp. D.P. Diff. Tens. --------------------------------------------------------------------- 3 Jillapahar, 7430 ft. 9.50 a.m. 57.0 40.2 16.8 .266 3 1849 ... Noon 59.8 44.1 15.7 .305 1 ... ... 2.40 p.m. 60.2 44.4 15.8 .308 7 Dr. Campbell's 6932 ft. 9.50 a.m. 61.8 53.3 8.5 .417 2 1850 ... Noon 65.4 52.8 12.6 .411 4 ... ... 4 p.m. 57.5 53.7 13.8 .423 3 ... ... Sunset 56.9 51.4 5.5 .392 --------------------------------------------------------------------- 23 ... ... Mean 59.8 48.6 11.3 .360 ---------------------------------------------------------------------

CALCUTTA No. of Obs. Place Elev. Hour Tp. D.P. Diff. Tens. ---------------------------------------------------------------------


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