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- Himalayan Journals (Complete) - 1/157 -


Scanned by Derek Thompson drthom@ihug.co.nz

HIMALAYAN JOURNALS or NOTES OF A NATURALIST

IN BENGAL, THE SIKKIM AND NEPAL HIMALAYAS, THE KHASIA MOUNTAINS, etc.

JOSEPH DALTON HOOKER, M.D., R.N., F.R.S.

Volume I

First published 1854

To CHARLES DARWIN, F.R.S., etc. These volumes are dedicated, by his affectionate friend, J.D. HOOKER Kew, Jan. 12th, 1854

-------------------------

Chapter I

Sunderbunds vegetation--Calcutta Botanic Garden--Leave for Burdwan--Rajah's gardens and menagerie--Coal-beds, geology, and plants of--Lac insect and plant--Camels--Kunker--Cowage-- Effloresced soda on soil--Glass, manufacture of--Atmospheric vapours--Temperature, etc.--Mahowa oil and spirits--Maddaobund --Jains--Ascent of Paras-nath--Vegetation of that mountain.

CHAPTER II.

Doomree--Vegetation of table-land--Lieutenant Beadle--Birds-- Hot springs of Soorujkoond--Plants near them--Shells in them-- Cholera-tree--Olibanum--Palms, form of--Dunwah pass--Trees, native and planted--Wild peacock--Poppy fields--Geography and geology of Behar and Central India--Toddy-palm--Ground, temperature of--Baroon--Temperature of plants--Lizard--Cross the Soane--Sand, ripple-marks on--Kymore hills--Ground, temperature of--Limestone--Rotas fort and palace--Nitrate of lime--Change of climate--Lime stalagmites, enclosing leaves-- Fall of Soane--Spiders, etc.--Scenery and natural history of upper Soane valley--_Hardwickia binata_--Bhel fruit-- Dust-storm--Alligator--Catechu--_Cochlospermum_-- Leaf-bellows--Scorpions--Tortoises--Florican--Limestone spheres--Coles--Tiger-hunt--Robbery.

CHAPTER III.

Ek-powa Ghat--Sandstones--Shahgunj--Table-land, elevation, etc. --Gum-arabic--Mango--Fair--Aquatic plants--Rujubbund-- Storm--False sunset and sunrise--Bind hills--Mirzapore-- Manufactures, imports, etc.--Climate--Thuggee--Chunar-- Benares--Mosque--Observatory--Sar-nath--Ghazeepore-- Rose-gardens--Manufactory of attar--Lord Cornwallis' tomb-- Ganges, scenery and natural history of--Pelicans--Vegetation-- Insects--Dinapore--Patna--Opium godowns and manufacture-- Mudar, white and purple--Monghyr islets--Hot springs of Seetakoond--Alluvium of Ganges--Rocks of Sultun-gunj-- Bhaugulpore--Temples of Mt. Manden--Coles and native tribes-- Bhaugulpore rangers--Horticultural gardens.

CHAPTER IV.

Leave Bhaugulpore--Kunker--Colgong--Himalaya, distant view of --Cosi, mouth of--Difficult navigation--Sand-storms-- Caragola-Ghat--Purnea--Ortolans--Mahanuddy, transport of pebbles, etc.--Betel-pepper, cultivation of--Titalya--Siligoree --View of outer Himalaya--Terai--Mechis--Punkabaree--Foot of mountains--Ascent to Dorjiling--Cicadas--Leeches--Animals-- Kursiong, spring vegetation of--Pacheem--Arrive at Dorjiling-- Dorjiling, origin and settlement of--Grant of land from Rajah-- Dr. Campbell appointed superintendent--Dewan, late and present-- Aggressive conduct of the latter--Increase of the station--Trade --Titalya fair--Healthy climate for Europeans and children-- Invalids, diseases prejudicial to.

CHAPTER V.

View from Mr. Hodgson's of range of snowy mountains--Their extent and elevation--Delusive appearance of elevation--Sinchul, view from and vegetation of--Chumulari--Magnolias, white and purple-- _Rhododendron Dalhousiae, arboreum_ and _argentium_--Natives of Dorjiling--Lepchas, origin, tradition of flood, morals, dress, arms, ornaments, diet--Cups, origin and value--Marriages-- Diseases--Burial--Worship and religion--Bijooas--Kumpa Rong, or Arrat--Limboos, origin, habits, language, etc.--Moormis-- Magras--Mechis--Comparison of customs with those of the natives of Assam, Khasia, etc.

CHAPTER VI.

Excursion from Dorjiling to Great Rungeet--Zones of vegetation-- Tree-ferns--Palms, upper limit of--Leebong, tea plantations-- Ging--Boodhist remains--Tropical vegetation--Pines--Lepcha clearances--Forest fires--Boodhist monuments--Fig-- Cane-bridge and raft over Rungeet--Sago-palm--India-rubber--Yel Pote--Butterflies and other insects--Snakes--Camp-- Temperature and humidity of atmosphere--Junction of Teesta and Rungeet--Return to Dorjiling--Tonglo, excursion to--Bamboo, flowering--Oaks--_Gordonia_--Maize, hermaphrodite flowered --Figs--Nettles--Peepsa--Simonbong, cultivation at--European fruits at Dorjiling-Plains of India.

CHAPTER VII.

Continue the ascent of Tonglo--Trees--Lepcha construction of hut --Simsibong--Climbing-trees--Frogs--Magnolias, etc.--Ticks --Leeches--Cattle, murrain amongst--Summit of Tonglo-- Rhododendrons--_Skimmia_--Yew--Rose--Aconite--Bikh poison--English genera of plants--Ascent of tropical orders-- Comparison with south temperate zone--Heavy rain--Temperature, etc.--Descent--Simonbong temple--Furniture therein-- Praying-cylinder--Thigh-bone trumpet--Morning orisons--Present of Murwa beer, etc.

CHAPTER VIII.

Difficulty in procuring leave to enter Sikkim--Obtain permission to travel in East Nepal--Arrangements--Coolies--Stores--Servants --Personal equipment--Mode of travelling--Leave Dorjiling-- Goong ridge--Behaviour of Bhotan coolies--Nepal frontier--Myong valley--Ilam--Sikkim massacre--Cultivation--Nettles--Camp at Nanki on Tonglo--Bhotan coolies run away--View of Chumulari-- Nepal peaks to west--Sakkiazong--_Buceros_--Road to Wallanchoon--Oaks--Scarcity of water--Singular view of mountain-valleys--Encampment--My tent and its furniture-- Evening occupations--Dunkotah-Cross ridge of Sakkiazong--Yews-- Silver-firs-View of Tambur valley--Pemmi river--Pebbly terraces --Geology--Holy springs--Enormous trees--_Luculia gratissima_--Khawa river, rocks of--Arrive at Tambur-- Shingle and gravel terraces--Natives, indolence of--Canoe ferry --Votive offerings--Bad road--Temperature, etc.--Chingtam village, view from--Mywa river and Guola--House--Boulders-- Chain-bridge--Meepo, arrival of--Fevers.

CHAPTER IX.

Leave Mywa--Suspension bridge--Landslips--Vegetation--Slope of river-bed--Bees' nests--Glacial phenomena--Tibetans, clothing, ornaments, amulets, salutation, children, dogs--Last Limboo village, Taptiatok--Beautiful scenery--Tibet village of Lelyp--_Opuntia--Edgeworthia_--Crab-apple--Chameleon and porcupine--Praying-machine--_Abies Brunoniana_--European plants--Grand scenery--Arrive at Wallanchoon--Scenery around-- Trees--Tibet houses--Manis and Mendongs--Tibet household-- Food--Tea-soup--Hospitality--Yaks and Zobo, uses and habits of --Bhoteeas--Yak-hair tents--Guobah of Walloong--Jatamansi-- Obstacles to proceeding-Climate and weather--Proceed-- Rhododendrons, etc.--Lichens--_Poa annua_ and Shepherd's purse--Tibet camp--Tuquoroma--Scenery of pass--Glaciers and snow--Summit--Plants, woolly, etc.

CHAPTER X.

Return from Wallanchoon pass--Procure a bazaar at village--Dance of Lamas--Blackening face, Tibetan custom of--Temple and convent --Leave for Kanglachem pass--Send part of party back to Dorjiling --Yangma Guola--Drunken Tibetans--Guobah of Wallanchoon--Camp at foot of Great Moraine--View from top--Geological speculations --Height of moraines--Cross dry lake-bed--Glaciers--More moraines--Terraces--Yangma temples--Jos, books and furniture-- Peak of Nango--Lake--Arrive at village--Cultivation--Scenery --Potatos--State of my provisions--Pass through village-- Gigantic boulders--Terraces--Wild sheep--Lake-beds--Sun's power--Piles of gravel and detritus--Glaciers and moraines-- Pabuk, elevation of--Moonlight scene--Return to Yangma-- Temperature, etc.--Geological causes of phenomena in valley-- Scenery of valley on descent.

CHAPTER XI.

Ascend to Nango mountain--Moraines--Glaciers--Vegetation-- _Rhododendron Hodgsoni_--Rocks--Honey-combed surface of snow --Perpetual snow--Top of pass--View--Elevation--Geology-- Distance of sound--Plants--Temperature--Scenery--Cliffs of granite and hurled boulders--Camp--Descent--Pheasants--Larch --Himalayan pines--Distribution of Deodar, note on-- Tassichooding temples--Kambachen village--Cultivation--Moraines in valley, distribution of--Picturesque lake-beds, and their vegetation--Tibetan sheep and goats--_Cryptogramma crispa_ --Ascent to Choonjerma pass--View of Junnoo--Rocks of its summit --Misty ocean--Nepal peaks--Top of pass--Temperature, and observations--Gorgeous sunset--Descent to Yalloong valley-- Loose path--Night scenes--Musk deer.

CHAPTER XII.

Yalloong valley--Find Kanglanamo pass closed--Change route for


Himalayan Journals (Complete) - 1/157

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