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- Himalayan Journals (Complete) - 2/157 -
the southward--_Picrorhiza_--View of Kubra-- _Rhododendron Falconeri_--Yalloong river--Junction of gneiss and clay-slate--Cross Yalloong range--Yiew--Descent--Yew-- Vegetation--Misty weather--Tongdam village--Khabang--Tropical vegetation--Sidingbah mountain--View of Kinchinjunga-- Yangyading village--Slopes of hills, and courses of rivers-- Khabili valley--Ghorkha Havildar's bad conduct--Ascend Singalelah --Plague of ticks--Short commons--Cross Islumbo pass--Boundary of Sikkim--Kulhait valley--Lingcham--Reception by Kajee--Hear of Dr. Campbell's going to meet Rajah--Views in valley--Leave for Teesta river--Tipsy Kajee--Hospitality--Murwa beer--Temples --_Acorus Calamus_--Long Mendong--Burning of dead-- Superstitions--Cross Great Rungeet--Boulders, origin of-- Purchase of a dog--Marshes--Lamas--Dismiss Ghorkhas--Bhoteea house--Murwa beer.
Raklang pass--Uses of nettles--Edible plants--Lepcha war-- Do-mani stone--Neongong--Teesta valley--Pony, saddle, etc.-- Meet Campbell--Vegetation and scenery--Presents--Visit of Dewan --Characters of Rajah and Dewan--Accounts of Tibet--Lhassa-- Siling--Tricks of Dewan--Walk up Teesta--Audience of Rajah-- Lamas--Kajees--Tchebu Lama, his character and position--Effects of interview--Heir-apparent--Dewan's house--Guitar--Weather --Fall of river--Tibet officers--Gigantic trees--Neongong lake --Mainom, ascent of--Vegetation--Camp on snow--Silver-firs-- View from top--Kinchin, etc.--Geology--Vapours--Sunset effect --Elevation--Temperature, etc.--Lamas of Neongong--Temples-- Religious festival Bamboo, flowering--Recross pass of Raklang-- Numerous temples, villages, etc.--Domestic animals--Descent to Great Rungeet.
Tassiding, view of and from--Funereal cypress--Camp at Sunnook-- Hot vapours--Lama's house--Temples, decorations, altars, idols, general effect--Chaits--Date of erection--Plundered by Ghorkas --Cross Ratong--Ascend to Pemiongehi--Relation of river-beds to strike of rocks--Slopes of ravines--Pemiongehi, view of-- Vegetation--Elevation--Temple, decorations, etc.--Former capital of Sikkim--History of Sikkim--Nightingales--Campbell departs--Tchonpong--_Edgeworthia_--Cross Rungbee and Ratong--Hoar-frost on plantains--Yoksun--Walnuts--View-- Funereal cypresses--Doobdi--Gigantic cypresses--Temples-- Snow-fall--Sikkim, etc.--Toys.
Leave Yoksun for Kinchinjunga--Ascend Ratong valley-- Salt-smuggling over Ratong--Landslips--Plants--Buckeem-- Blocks of gneiss--Mon Lepcha--View--Weather--View from Gubroo --Kinchinjunga, tops of--Pundimcliff--Nursing--Vegetation of Himalaya--Coup d'oeil of Jongri--Route to Yalloong--Arduous route of salt-traders from Tibet--Kinchin, ascent of--Lichens-- Surfaces sculptured by snow and ice--Weather at Jongri--Snow-- Shades for eyes.
Ratong river below Mon Lepcha--Ferns--Vegetation of Yoksun, tropical--_Araliaceae_, fodder for cattle--Rice-paper plant --Geology of Yoksun--Lake--Old temples--Funereal cypresses-- Gigantic chart--Altars--Songboom--Weather--Catsuperri-- Velocity of Ratong--Worship at Catsuperri lake--Scenery--Willow --Lamas and ecclesiastical establishments of Sikkim--Tengling-- Changachelling temples and monks--Portrait of myself on walls-- Block of mica-schist--Lingcham Kajee asks for spectacles-- Hee-hill--Arrive at Little Rungeet--At Dorjiling--Its deserted and wintry appearance.
Dispatch collections--Acorns--Heat--Punkabaree--Bees-- Vegetation--Haze--Titalya--Earthquake--Proceed to Nepal frontier--Terai, geology of--Physical features of Himalayan valleys--Elephants, purchase of, etc.--River-beds--Mechi river --Return to Titalya--Leave for Teesta--Climate of plains-- Jeelpigoree--Cooches--Alteration in the appearance of country by fires, etc.--Grasses--Bamboos--Cottages--Rajah of Cooch Behar --Condition of people--Hooli festival--Ascend Teesta--Canoes --Cranes--Forest--Baikant-pore--Rummai--Religion--Plants at foot of mountains--Exit of Teesta--Canoe voyage down to Rangamally--English genera of plants--Birds--Beautiful scenery --Botanizing on elephants--Willow--Siligoree--Cross Terai-- Geology--Iron--Lohar-ghur--Coal and sandstone beds--Mechi fisherman--Hailstorm--Ascent to Kursiong--To Dorjiling-- Vegetation--Geology--Folded quartz-beds--Spheres of feldspar-- Lime deposits.
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
Fig. I. The Dhak, _i_Butea frondosa,_/i_ and _i_Cochlospermum gossypium,_/i_ with the Kymore Hills in the background. p.53 Fig. II. View of Kinchinjunga from Mr. Hodgson's bungalow at Dorjiling, from a sketch by W. Tayler, Esq., B.C.S. Frontispiece. Fig. III. From Chingtam, looking up the Tambur Valley. p.196 Fig. IV. Nango mountain, from the summit of the great moraine in Yangma Valley, looking eastward. p.232 Fig. V. Junnoo mountain from the Choonjerma Pass. p.264
Fig. 1. Old tamarind trees. p.17 Fig. 2. Crossing the Soane River above Tura, with the Kymore Hills in the background. p.47 Fig. 3. Equatorial sun-dial, Benares Observatory. p.74 Fig. 4. Equinoctial sun-dial, Benares Observatory. p.75 Fig. 5. Azimuth circle, Benares Observatory. p.76 Fig. 6. Monghyr on the Ganges. p.88 Fig. 7. Punkabaree, Sikkim Terai, and Balasun River. The trees in the foreground are _i_Araliaceae._/i_ p.105 Fig. 8. Lepcha girl and Boodhist priest. From a sketch by Miss Colvile. p.129 Fig. 9. _i_Pinus longifolia,_/i_ in the great Rungeet Valley. p.148 Fig. 10. Construction of a cane suspension-bridge. p.149 Fig. 11. Lepcha boy carrying a bamboo water-vessel. From a sketch by Miss Colvile. p.156 Fig. 12. Amulet usually worn by Lepchas. p.161 Fig. 13. Trunk-like root of _i_Wightia gigantea,_/i_ ascending a tree, which its stout rootlets clasp. p.164 Fig. 14. Interior of Boodhist temple at Simonbong. p.172 Fig. 15. Trumpet made of a human thigh-bone. p.173 Fig. 16. Tibetan amulet set with turquoises. p.176 Fig. 17. Head of Tibet Mastiff. From a sketch taken in the zoological gardens by C. Jenyns, Esq. p.203 Fig. 18. View on the Tambur River, with _i_Ambies brunoniana_/i_. p.207 Fig. 19. Wallanchoon village, East Nepal. p.210 Fig. 20. Head of a Tibetan demon. From a model in the possession of Captain H. Strachey. p.226 Fig. 21. Ancient moraines surrounding the lower lake-bed in the Yangma valley (looking west). p.234 Fig. 22. Second lake-bed in the Yangma valley, with Nango mountain, (looking east). p.237 Fig. 23. Diagram of the terraces and glacial boulders, etc., at the fork of the Yangma valley (looking north-west up the valley). The terraces are represented as much too level and angular, and the boulders too large, the woodcut being intended as a diagram rather than as a view. p.242 Fig. 24. View of the head of the Yangma valley, and ancient moraines of debris, which rise in confused hills several hundred feet above the floor of the valley below the Kanglachem pass (elevation 16,000 feet). p.245 Fig. 25. Skulls of _i_Ovis ammon._/i_ Sketched by J. E. Winterbottom, Esq. p.249 Fig. 26. Ancient moraines, in which small lake-beds occur, in the Kambachen valley (elevation 11,400 feet). p.260 Fig. 27. Brass box to contain amulets, from Tibet. p.270 Fig. 28. Pemiongchi goompa (or temple) with Chaits in the foreground. p.286 Fig. 29. Costumes of Sikkim lamas and monks, with the bell, mani, dorje, and trident. p.291 Fig. 30. The Do-mani stone, with gigantic Tibetan characters. p.294 Fig. 31. Implements of worship in the Sikkim temples. p.314 Fig. 32. Chaits at Tassiding, with decayed funereal cypresses. p.316 Fig. 33. Vestibule of temple at Tassiding. p.319 Fig. 34. Southern temple, at Tassiding. p.320 Fig. 35. Middle temple, at Tassiding, with mounted yaks. p.321 Fig. 36. Chair, altar, and images in the great temple at Tassiding. p.322 Fig. 37. Ground-plan of southern temple at Tassiding. p.323 Fig. 38. Interior of temple at Pemiongchi, the walls covered with allegorical paintings. p.329 Fig. 39. Doobdi temple, with young and old funereal cypress. p.337 Fig. 40. Summit of Kinchinjunga, with Pundim on the right; its black cliff traversed by white granite veins. p.347 Fig. 41. Image of Maitrya, the coming Boodh. p.357 Fig. 42. Stone altar, and erection for burning juniper ashes. p.361 Fig. 43. Facsimile of the vermilion seal of the Dhurma Rajah of Bhotan, head of the Dookpa sect of Boodhists. Opposite p.372 Fig. 44. A Mech, native of the Sikkim Terai. Sketched by Miss Colvile. p.406 Fig. 45. Mech pocket-comb (of wood). p.408
HAVING accompanied Sir James Boss on his voyage of discovery to the Antarctic regions, where botany was my chief pursuit, on my return I earnestly desired to add to my acquaintance with the natural history of the temperate zones, more knowledge of that of the tropics than I bad hitherto had the opportunity of acquiring. My choice lay between India and the Andes, and I decided upon the former, being principally influenced by Dr. Falconer, who promised me every assistance which his position as Superintendent of the H.E.I.C. Botanic Garden at Calcutta, would enable hum to give. He also drew my attention to the fact that we were ignorant even of the geography of the central and eastern parts of these mountains, while all to the north was involved in a mystery equally attractive to the traveller and the naturalist.
On hearing of the kind interest taken by Baron Humboldt in my proposed travels, and at the request of my father (Sir William Hooker), the Earl of Carlisle (then Chief Commissioner of Woods and Forests) undertook to represent to Her Majesty's Government the
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