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- Himalayan Journals, V1 - 2/63 -


violence_ and detention, is common with the turbulent tribes east of Nepal, but was in this instance aggravated by violence towards my fellow-prisoner, through the ill will of the persons who executed the orders of their superiors, and who had been punished by Dr. Campbell for crimes committed against both the British and Nepalese governments. The circumstances of this outrage were misunderstood at the time; its instigators were supposed to be Chinese; its perpetrators Tibetans; and we the offenders were assumed to have thrust ourselves into the country, without authority from our own government, and contrary to the will of the Sikkim Rajah; who was imagined to be a tributary of China, and protected by that nation, and to be under no obligation to the East Indian government.

With regard to the obligations I owe to Dr. Campbell, I confine myself to saying that his whole aim was to promote my comfort, and to secure my success, in all possible ways. Every object I had in view was as sedulously cared for by him as by myself: I am indebted to his influence with Jung Bahadoor* [It was in Nepal that Dr. Campbell gained the friendship of Jung Bahadoor, the most remarkable proof of which is the acceding to his request, and granting me leave to visit the eastern parts of his dominions; no European that I am aware of, having been allowed, either before or since, to travel anywhere except to and from the plains of India and valley of Katmandu, in which the capital city and British residency are situated.] for the permission to traverse his dominions, and to visit the Tibetan passes of Nepal. His prudence and patience in negotiating with the Sikkim court, enabled me to pursue my investigations in that country. My journal is largely indebted to his varied and extensive knowledge of the people and productions of these regions.

In all numerical calculations connected with my observations, I received most essential aid from John Muller, Esq., Accountant of the Calcutta Mint, and from his brother, Charles Muller, Esq., of Patna, both ardent amateurs in scientific pursuits, and who employed themselves in making meteorological observations at Dorjiling, where they were recruiting constitutions impaired by the performance of arduous duties in the climate of the plains. I cannot sufficiently thank these gentlemen for the handsome manner in which they volunteered me their assistance in these laborious operations. Mr. J. Muller resided at Dorjiling during eighteen months of my stay in Sikkim, over the whole of which period his generous zeal in my service never relaxed; he assisted me in the reduction of many hundreds of my observations for latitude, time, and elevation, besides adjusting and rating my instruments; and I can recall no more pleasant days than those thus spent with these hospitable friends.

Thanks to Dr. Falconer's indefatigable exertions, such of my collections as reached Calcutta were forwarded to England in excellent order; and they were temporarily deposited in Kew Gardens until their destination should be determined. On my return home, my scientific friends interested themselves in procuring from the Government such aid as might enable me to devote the necessary time to the arrangement, naming, and distributing of my collections, the publication of my manuscripts, etc. I am in this most deeply indebted to the disinterested and generous exertions of Mr. L. Horner, Sir Charles Lyell, Dr. Lindley, Professor E. Forbes, and many others; and most especially to the Presidents of the Royal Society (the Earl of Rosse), of the Linnean (Mr. R. Brown), and Geological (Mr. Hopkins), who in their official capacities memorialized in person the Chief Commissioner of Woods and Forests on this subject; Sir William Hooker at the same time bringing it under the notice of the First Lord of the Treasury. The result was a grant of 400 annually for three years.

Dr. T. Thomson joined me in Dorjiling in the end of 1849, after the completion of his arduous journeys in the North-West Himalaya and Tibet, and we spent the year 1850 in travelling and collecting, returning to England together in 1851. Having obtained permission from the Indian Government to distribute his botanical collections, which equal my own in extent and value, we were advised by all our botanical friends to incorporate, and thus to distribute them. The whole constitute an Herbarium of from 6000 to 7000 species of Indian plants, including an immense number of duplicates; and it is now in process of being arranged and named, by Dr. Thomson and myself, preparatory to its distribution amongst sixty of the principal public and private herbaria in Europe, India, and the United States of America.

For the information of future travellers, I may state that the total expense of my Indian journey, including outfit, three years and a half travelling, and the sending of my collections to Calcutta, was under 2000 (of which 1200 were defrayed by government), but would have come to much more, had I not enjoyed the great advantages I have detailed. This sum does not include the purchase of books and instruments, with which I supplied myself, and which cost about 200, nor the freight of the collections to England, which was paid by Government. Owing to the kind services of Mr. J. C. Melvill, Secretary of the India House, many small parcels of seeds, etc., were conveyed to England, free of cost; and I have to record my great obligations and sincere thanks to the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company, for conveying, without charge, all small parcels of books, instruments and specimens, addressed to or by myself.

It remains to say something of the illustrations of this work. The maps are from surveys of my own, made chiefly with my own instruments, but partly with some valuable ones for the use of which I am indebted to my friend Captain H. Thuillier, Deputy Surveyor-General of India, who placed at my disposal the resources of the magnificent establishment under his control, and to whose innumerable good offices I am very greatly beholden.

The landscapes, etc. have been prepared chiefly from my own drawings, and will, I hope, be found to be tolerably faithful representations of the scenes. I have always endeavoured to overcome that tendency to exaggerate heights, and increase the angle of slopes, which is I believe the besetting sin, not of amateurs only, but of our most accomplished artists. As, however, I did not use instruments in projecting the outlines, I do not pretend to have wholly avoided this snare; nor, I regret to say; has the lithographer, in all cases, been content to abide by his copy. My drawings will be considered tame compared with most mountain landscapes, though the subjects comprise some of the grandest scenes in nature. Considering how conventional the treatment of such subjects is, and how unanimous artists seem to be as to the propriety of exaggerating those features which should predominate in the landscape, it may fairly be doubted whether the total effect of steepness and elevation, especially in a mountain view, can, on a small scale, be conveyed by a strict adherence to truth. I need hardly add, that if such is attainable, it is only by those who have a power of colouring that few pretend to. In the list of plates and woodcuts I have mentioned the obligations I am under to several friends for the use of drawings, etc.

With regard to the spelling of native names, after much anxious discussion I have adopted that which assimilates most to the English pronunciation. For great assistance in this, for a careful revision of the sheets as they passed through the press, and for numerous valuable suggestions throughout, I am indebted to my fellow-traveller, Dr. Thomas Thomson.

CONTENTS.

CHAPTER I.

Sunderbunds vegetation -- Calcutta Botanic Garden -- Leave for Burdwan -- Rajah's gardens and menagerie -- Coal-beds, geology, and plants of -- Lac insect and plant -- Camels -- Kunker -- Cowage -- Effloresced soda on soil -- Glass, manufacture of -- Atmospheric vapours -- Temperature, etc. -- Mahowa oil and spirits -- Maddaobund -- Jains -- Ascent of Paras-nath -- Vegetation of that mountain.

CHAPTER II.

Doomree -- Vegetation of table-land -- Lieutenant Beadle -- Birds -- Hot springs of Soorujkoond -- Plants near them -- Shells in them -- Cholera-tree -- Olibanum -- Palms, form of -- Dunwah pass -- Trees, native and planted -- Wild peacock -- Poppy fields -- Geography and geology of Behar and Central India -- Toddy-palm -- Ground, temperature of -- Baroon -- Temperature of plants -- Lizard -- Cross the Soane -- Sand, ripple-marks on -- Kymore hills -- Ground, temperature of -- Limestone -- Rotas fort and palace -- Nitrate of lime -- Change of climate -- Lime stalagmites, enclosing leaves -- Fall of Soane -- Spiders, etc. -- Scenery and natural history of upper Soane valley -- _Hardwickia binata_ -- Bhel fruit -- Dust-storm -- Alligator -- Catechu -- _Cochlospermum_ -- Leaf-bellows -- Scorpions -- Tortoises -- Florican -- Limestone spheres -- Coles -- Tiger-hunt -- Robbery.

CHAPTER III.

Ek-powa Ghat -- Sandstones -- Shahgunj -- Table-land, elevation, etc. -- Gum-arabic -- Mango -- Fair -- Aquatic plants -- Rujubbund -- Storm -- False sunset and sunrise -- Bind hills -- Mirzapore -- Manufactures, imports, etc. -- Climate -- Thuggee -- Chunar -- Benares -- Mosque -- Observatory -- Sar-nath -- Ghazeepore -- Rose-gardens -- Manufactory of attar -- Lord Cornwallis' tomb -- Ganges, scenery and natural history of -- Pelicans -- Vegetation -- Insects -- Dinapore -- Patna -- Opium godowns and manufacture -- Mudar, white and purple -- Monghyr islets -- Hot springs of Seetakoond -- Alluvium of Ganges -- Rocks of Sultun-gunj -- Bhaugulpore -- Temples of Mt. Manden -- Coles and native tribes -- Bhaugulpore rangers -- Horticultural gardens.

CHAPTER IV.

Leave Bhaugulpore -- Kunker -- Colgong -- Himalaya, distant view of -- Cosi, mouth of -- Difficult navigation -- Sand-storms -- Caragola-Ghat -- Purnea -- Ortolans -- Mahanuddy, transport of pebbles, etc. -- Betel-pepper, cultivation of -- Titalya -- Siligoree -- View of outer Himalaya -- Terai -- Mechis -- Punkabaree -- Foot of mountains -- Ascent to Dorjiling -- Cicadas -- Leeches -- Animals -- Kursiong, spring vegetation of -- Pacheem -- Arrive at Dorjiling -- Dorjiling, origin and settlement of -- Grant of land from Rajah -- Dr. Campbell appointed superintendent -- Dewan, late and present -- Aggressive conduct of the latter -- Increase of the station -- Trade -- Titalya fair -- Healthy climate for Europeans and children -- Invalids, diseases prejudicial to.

CHAPTER V.

View from Mr. Hodgson's of range of snowy mountains -- Their extent and elevation -- Delusive appearance of elevation -- Sinchul, view from and vegetation of -- Chumulari -- Magnolias, white and purple -- _Rhododendron Dalhousiae, arboreum_ and _argentium_ -- Natives of Dorjiling -- Lepchas, origin, tradition of flood, morals, dress, arms, ornaments, diet -- Cups, origin and value -- Marriages -- Diseases -- Burial -- Worship and religion -- Bijooas -- Kumpa Rong, or Arrat -- Limboos, origin, habits, language, etc. -- Moormis -- Magras -- Mechis -- Comparison of customs with those of the natives of Assam, Khasia, etc.

CHAPTER VI.


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