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- A Brief History of the United States - 1/73 -


A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES

BY JOHN BACH McMASTER

[Illustration: GEORGE WASHINGTON. Painted by Rembrandt Peale.]

PREFACE

It is not too much to assert that most of our countrymen acquire at school all the knowledge they possess of the past history of their country. In view of this fact it is most desirable that a history of the United States for elementary schools should present not only the essential features of our country's progress which all should learn, but also many things of secondary consequence which it is well for every young American to know.

In this book the text proper consists of the essentials, and these are told in as few words as truth and fairness will permit. The notes, which form a large part of the book, include the matters of less fundamental importance: they may be included in the required lessons, or may be omitted, as the teacher thinks proper; however, they should at least be read. Some of the notes are outline biographies of men whose acts require mention in the text and who ought not to be mere names, nor appear suddenly without any statement of their earlier careers. Others are intended to be fuller statements of important events briefly described or narrated in the text, or relate to interesting events that are of only secondary importance. Still others call attention to the treatment of historical personages or events by our poets and novelists, or suggest passages in standard histories that may be read with profit. Such suggested readings have been chosen mostly from books that are likely to be found in all school libraries.

Much of the machinery sometimes used in history teaching--bibliographies, extensive collateral readings, judgment questions, and the like--have been omitted as out of place in a brief school history. Better results may be obtained by having the pupils write simple narratives in their own words, covering important periods and topics in our history: as, the discovery of America; the exploration of our coast and continent; the settlements that failed; the planting of the English colonies; the life of the colonists; the struggles for possession of the country; the causes of the Revolution; the material development of our country between certain dates; and other subjects that the teacher may suggest. The student who can take such broad views of our history, and put his knowledge in his own words, will acquire information that is not likely to be forgotten.

No trouble has been spared in the selection of interesting and authentic illustrations that will truly illustrate the text. Acknowledgment is due for permission to photograph many articles in museums and in the possession of various historical societies. The reproduction of part of Lincoln's proclamation on page 365 is inserted by courtesy of David McKay, publisher of Lossing's _Civil War in America_.

JOHN BACH McMASTER. UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA

[Illustration: U. S. BATTLESHIP.]

CONTENTS

CHAPTER

DISCOVERY AND EXPLORATION I. THE NEW WORLD FOUND II. THE ATLANTIC COAST AND THE PACIFIC DISCOVERED III. FRANCE AND ENGLAND ATTEMPT TO SETTLE AMERICA

THE ENGLISH IN AMERICA IV. THE ENGLISH ON THE CHESAPEAKE V. THE ENGLISH IN NEW ENGLAND VI. THE MIDDLE AND SOUTHERN COLONIES VII. HOW THE COLONIES WERE GOVERNED

RIVALS OF THE ENGLISH VIII. THE INDIANS IX. THE FRENCH IN AMERICA X. WARS WITH THE FRENCH XI. THE FRENCH DRIVEN FROM AMERICA

THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION XII. THE QUARREL WITH THE MOTHER COUNTRY XIII. THE FIGHT FOR INDEPENDENCE BEGUN XIV. THE WAR IN THE MIDDLE STATES AND ON THE SEA XV. THE WAR IN THE WEST AND IN THE SOUTH

DEVELOPMENT OF THE UNION XVI. AFTER THE WAR XVII. OUR COUNTRY IN 1789 XVIII. THE NEW GOVERNMENT XIX. GROWTH OF THE COUNTRY, 1789-1805 XX. THE STRUGGLE FOR COMMERCIAL INDEPENDENCE XXI. RISE OF THE WEST XXII. THE ERA OF GOOD FEELING XXIII. POLITICS FROM 1829 TO 1841 XXIV. GROWTH OF THE COUNTRY FROM 1820 TO 1840

THE LONG STRUGGLE AGAINST SLAVERY XXV. MORE TERRITORY ACQUIRED XXVI. THE STRUGGLE FOR FREE SOIL XXVII. STATE OF THE COUNTRY FROM 1840 TO 1860 XXVIII. THE CIVIL WAR, 1861-1863 XXIX. THE CIVIL WAR, 1863-1865 XXX. THE NAVY IN THE WAR; LIFE IN WAR TIMES XXXI. RECONSTRUCTION

ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT XXXII. GROWTH OF THE COUNTRY FROM 1860 TO 1880 XXXIII. A QUARTER CENTURY OF STRUGGLE OVER INDUSTRIAL QUESTIONS, 1872 TO 1897 XXXIV. THE WAR WITH SPAIN, AND LATER EVENTS

APPENDIX THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES TABLE OF STATES TABLE OF PRESIDENTS INDEX

LIST OF COLORED MAPS

FRENCH CLAIMS, ETC., IN 1700 EASTERN NORTH AMERICA, 1754 BRITISH TERRITORY, 1764 NORTHERN COLONIES DURING THE REVOLUTION--SOUTHERN COLONIES DURING THE REVOLUTION THE UNITED STATES, ABOUT 1783, SHOWING STATE CLAIMS THE UNITED STATES, 1805 THE UNITED STATES, 1824 THE UNITED STATES, 1850 THE UNITED STATES, 1861 THE WEST IN 1870 (ALSO 1860 AND 1907) THE UNITED STATES AND ITS OUTLYING POSSESSIONS

[Illustration: "I pledge allegiance to my Flag and to the Republic for which it stands; one nation, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all."]

COLUMBUS

Behind him lay the gray Azores, Behind the Gates of Hercules; Before him not the ghost of shores, Before him only shoreless seas. The good mate said: "Now we must pray, For, lo! the very stars are gone. Brave Admiral, speak; what shall I say?" "Why say, 'Sail on! sail on! and on!'"

"My men grow mutinous day by day; My men grow ghastly wan and weak." The stout mate thought of home; a spray Of salt wave washed his swarthy cheek. "What shall I say, brave Admiral, say, If we sight naught but seas at dawn?" "Why you shall say at break of day, 'Sail on! sail on! sail on! and on!'"

They sailed and sailed, as winds might blow, Until at last the blanched mate said: "Why, now not even God would know Should I and all my men fall dead. These very winds forget their way, For God from these dread seas is gone, Now speak, brave Admiral; speak and say"-- He said, "Sail on! sail on! and on!"

They sailed. They sailed. Then spake the mate: "This mad sea shows its teeth to-night. He curls his lips, he lies in wait With lifted teeth, as if to bite! Brave Admiral, say but one good word; What shall we do when hope is gone?" The words leapt like a leaping sword: "Sail on! sail on! sail on! and on!"

Then, pale and worn, he kept his deck, And peered through darkness. Ah, that night Of all dark nights! And then a speck-- A light! A light! A light! A light! It grew, a starlit flag unfurled! It grew to be Time's burst of dawn. He gained a world; he gave that world


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