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- Works, V1 - 1/55 -


THE WORKS OF LUCIAN OF SAMOSATA

Complete with exceptions specified in the preface

TRANSLATED BY

H. W. FOWLER AND F. G. FOWLER

IN FOUR VOLUMES

What work nobler than transplanting foreign thought into the barren domestic soil? except indeed planting thought of your own, which the fewest are privileged to do.--_Sarlor Resarlus_.

At each flaw, be this your first thought: the author doubtless said something quite different, and much more to the point. And then you may hiss _me_ off, if you will.--LUCIAN, _Nigrinus, 9_.

(LUCIAN) The last great master of Attic eloquence and Attic wit.-- _Lord Macaulay_.

VOLUME I

PREFACE

The text followed in this translation is that of Jacobitz, Teubner, 1901, all deviations from which are noted.

In the following list of omissions, italics denote that the piece is marked as spurious both by Dindorf and by Jacobitz. The other omissions are mainly by way of expurgation. In a very few other passages some isolated words and phrases have been excised; but it has not been thought necessary to mark these in the texts by asterisks.

_Halcyon_; Deorum Dialogi, iv, v, ix, x, xvii, xxii, xxiii; Dialogi Marini, xiii; Vera Historia, I. 22, II. 19; Alexander, 41,42; Eunuchus; _De Astrologia_; _Amores_; _Lucius_ sive _Asinus_; Rhetorum Preceptor, 23; _Hippias_; Adversus Indoctum, 23; Pseudologista; _Longaevi_; Dialogi Meretricii, v, vi, x; De Syria Dea; _Philopatris; Charidemus; Nero_; Tragodopodagra; Ocypus; Epigrammata.

A word may be said about four pieces that seem to stand apart from the rest. Of these, the _Trial in the Court of Vowels_ and _A Slip of the Tongue_ will be interesting only to those who are familiar with Greek. The _Lexiphanes_ and _A Purist Purized_, satirizing the pedants and euphuists of Lucian's day, almost defy translation, and they must be accepted at best as an effort to give the general effect of the original.

The _Notes explanatory_ at the end of vol. iv will be used by the reader at his discretion. Reference is made to them at the foot of the page only when it is not obvious what name should be consulted.

The translators take this opportunity of offering their heartiest thanks to the Delegates of the Clarendon Press for undertaking this work; and, in particular, to the Vice-Chancellor of Oxford University, Dr. Merry, who has been good enough to read the proofs, and to give much valuable advice both on the difficult subject of excision and on details of style and rendering. In this connexion, however, it should be added that for the retention of many modern phrases, which may offend some readers as anachronistic, responsibility rests with the translators alone.

CONTENTS of VOL. 1

PREFACE

INTRODUCTION

THE VISION

A LITERARY PROMETHEUS

NIGRINUS

TRIAL IN THE COURT OF VOWELS

TIMON THE MISANTHROPE

PROMETHEUS ON CAUCASUS

DIALOGUES OF THE GODS

i, ii, iii, vi, vii, viii, xi, xii, xiii, xiv, xv, xvi, xviii, xix, xx, xxi, xxiv, xxv, xxvi.

DIALOGUES OF THE SEA-GODS

i, ii, iii, iv, v, vi, vii, viii, ix, x, xi, xii, xiv, xv.

DIALOGUES OF THE DEAD

I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, IX, X, XI, XII, XIII, XIV, XV, XVI, XVII, XVIII, XIX, XX, XXI, XXII, XXIII, XXIV, XXV, XXVI, XXVII, XXVIII, XXIX, XXX.

MENIPPUS

CHARON

OF SACRIFICE

SALE OF CREEDS

THE FISHER

VOYAGE TO THE LOWER WORLD

INTRODUCTION

1. LIFE.

2. PROBABLE ORDER OF WRITINGS.

3. CIRCUMSTANCES OF THE TIME.

4. LUCIAN AS A WRITER.

It is not to be understood that all statements here made are either ascertained facts or universally admitted conjectures. The introduction is intended merely to put those who are not scholars, and probably have not books of reference at hand, in a position to approach the translation at as little disadvantage as may be. Accordingly, we give the account that commends itself to us, without discussion or reference to authorities. Those who would like a more complete idea of Lucian should read Croiset's _Essai sur la vie et les oeuvres de Lucien_, on which the first two sections of this introduction are very largely based. The only objections to the book (if they are objections) are that it is in French, and of 400 octavo pages. It is eminently readable.

1. LIFE

With the exception of a very small number of statements, of which the truth is by no means certain, all that we know of Lucian is derived from his own writings. And any reader who prefers to have his facts at first rather than at second hand can consequently get them by reading certain of his pieces, and making the natural deductions from them. Those that contain biographical matter are, in the order corresponding to the periods of his life on which they throw light, _The Vision, Demosthenes, Nigrinus, The Portrait-study_ and _Defence_ (in which Lucian is _Lycinus_), _The Way to write History, The double ndictment_ (in which he is _The Syrian_), _The Fisher_ (_Parrhesiades_), _Swans and Amber, Alexander_, Hermotimus_ (_Lycinus_), _Menippus and Icaromenippus_ (in which _Menippus_ represents him), _A literary Prometheus, Herodotus, Zeuxis, Harmonides, The Scythian_, The Death of Peregrine, The Book-fancier, Demonax, The Rhetorician's Vade mecum, Dionysus, Heracles, A Slip of the Tongue, Apology for 'The dependent Scholar.'_ Of these _The Vision_ is a direct piece of autobiography; there is intentional but veiled autobiography in several of the other pieces; in others again conclusions can be drawn from comparison of his statements with facts known from external sources.

Lucian lived from about 125 to about 200 A.D., under the Roman Emperors Antoninus Pius, M. Aurelius and Lucius Verus, Commodus, and perhaps Pertinax. He was a Syrian, born at Samosata on the Euphrates, of parents to whom it was of importance that he should earn his living without spending much time or money on education. His maternal uncle being a statuary, he was apprenticed to him, having shown an aptitude for modelling in the wax that he surreptitiously scraped from his school writing-tablets. The apprenticeship lasted one day. It is clear that he was impulsive all through life; and when his uncle corrected him with a stick for breaking a piece of marble, he ran off home, disposed already to think he had had enough of statuary. His mother took his part, and he made up his mind by the aid of a vision that came to him the same night.

It was the age of the rhetoricians. If war was not a thing of the past, the shadow of the _pax Romana_ was over all the small states, and the aspiring provincial's readiest road to fame was through words rather than deeds. The arrival of a famous rhetorician to lecture was one of the important events in any great city's annals; and Lucian's works are full of references to the impression these men produced, and the envy they enjoyed. He himself was evidently consumed, during his youth and early manhood, with desire for a position like theirs. To


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