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- Manners and Monuments of Prehistoric Peoples - 1/53 -


Manners and Monuments of Prehistoric Peoples

by The Marquis de Nadaillac

Translated by

Nancy Bell (N. D'Anvers)

Translator's Note

The present volume has been translated, with the author's consent, from the French of the Marquis de Nadaillac. The author and translator have carefully brought down to date the original edition, embodying the discoveries made during the progress of the work. The book will be found to be an epitome of all that is known on the subject of which it treats, and covers ground not at present occupied by any other work in the English language.

Nancy Bell (N. D'Anvers).

Southbourne-On-Sea,

1891.

Contents.

Chapter Page I. The Stone Age, its Duration, and its Place in Time 1 II. Food, Cannibalism, Mammals, Fish, Hunting and Fishing, Navigation 47 III. Weapons, Tools, Pottery; Origin of the Use of Fire, Clothing, Ornaments; Early Artistic Efforts 79 IV. Caves, Kitchen-Middings, Lake Stations, "Terremares," Crannoges, Burghs, "Nurhags," "Talayoti," and "Truddhi" 127 V. Megalithic Monuments 174 VI. Industry, Commerce, Social Organization; Fights, Wounds and Trepanation 231 VII. Camps, Fortifications, Vitrified Forts; Santorin; the Towns upon the Hill of Hissarlik 279 VIII. Tombs 343 Index 383

Illustrations.

Figure Page Fossil man from Mentone. FRONTISPIECE 1. Stone weapons described by Mahudel in 1734. 8 2. Copper hatchets found in Hungary and now in national museum of Budapest. 20 3. Copper beads from Connett's Mound, Ohio (natural size). 21 4. Stone statues on Easter Island. 37 5. Fort-hill, Ohio. 39 6. Group of sepulchral mounds. 40 7. Ground plan of a pueblo of the Mac-Elmo valley. 41 8. Cliff-house on the Rio Mancos. 42 9. House in a rock of the Montezuma canon. 43 10. 1. Fragments of arrows made of reindeer horn from the Martinet cave (Lot-et-Garonne). 2. Point of spear or harpoon in stag-horn (one third natural size). 3. and 4. Bone weapons from Denmark. 5. Harpoon of stag-horn from St. Aubin. 6. Bone fish-hooks pointed at each end, from Waugen. 61 11. Bear's teeth converted into fish-hooks. 62 12. Fish-hook made out of a boar's tusk. 62 13. A. Large barbed arrow from one side of the Plan Lade shelter (Tarn-et-Garonne). B. Lower part of a barbed harpoon from the Plantade deposit. 65 14. Ancient Scandinavian boat found beneath a tumulus at Gogstadten. 73 15. Ancient boat discovered in the bed of the Cher. 75

16. A lake pirogue found in the Lake of Neuchatel. 1. As seen outside. 2. and 3. Longitudinal and transverse sections. Stones used as anchors, found in the Bay of Penhouet. 76 17. 1, 2, 3. Stones weighing about 160 lbs. each. 4. and 5. Lighter stones, probably used for canoes. 80 18. Scraper from the Delaware valley. 82 19. Implement from the Delaware valley. 82 20. Worked flints from the Lafaye and Plantade shelters (Tarn-et-Garonne). 83 21. 1. Stone javelin-head with handle. 2. Stone hatchet with handle. 89 22. 1. Fine needles. 2. Coarse needles. 3. Amulet. 4 and 6. Ornaments. 5. Cut flints. 7. Fragment of a harpoon. 8. Fragments of reindeer antlers with signs or drawings. 9. Whistle. 10. One end of a bow (?). 11. Arrow-head. (From the Vache, Massat, and Lourdes caves) 91 23. Amulet made of the penien bone of a bear and found in the Marsoulas cave. 92 24. Various stone and bone objects from California. 93 25. Dipper found in the excavations at the Chassey camp. 95 26. Pottery of a so far unclassified type found in the Argent cave (France). 98 27. 1. Lignite pendant. 2. Bone pendant. (Thayngen cave). 107 28. Round pieces of skull, pierced with holes (M. de Baye's collection). 110 29. Part of a rounded piece of a human parietal. Stiletto made of the end of a human radius. 111 Disk, made of the burr of a stag's antler. 30. Whistle from the Massenat collection. 112 31. Staff of office. 113 32. Staff of office, made of stag-horn pierced with four holes. 114 33. Staff of office found at Lafaye. 34. Staff of office in reindeer antler, with a horse engraved on it (Thayngen). 115

35. Staff of office found at Montgaudier. 117 36. Carved dagger-hilt (Laugerie-Basse). 118 37. The great cave-bear, drawn on a pebble found in the Massat cave (Garrigou collection). 118 38. Mammoth or elephant from the Una cave. 119 39. Seal engraved on a bear's tooth, found at Sordes. 40. Fragment of a bone, with regular designs. Fragment of a rib on which is engraved a musk-ox, found in the Marsoulas cave. 120 41. Head of a horse from the Thayngen cave. 121 42. Bear engraved on a bone, from the Thayngen cave. 121 43. Reindeer grazing, from the Thayngen cave. 122 44. Head of OVIBOS MOSCHATUS, engraved on wood, found in the Thayngen cave. 123 45. Young man chasing the aurochs, from Laugerie. 124 46. Fragment of a staff of office, from the Madelaine cave. 125 47. Human face carved on a reindeer antler, found in the Rochebertier cave. 125 48. The glyptodon. 128 49. MYLODON ROBUSTUS. 129 50. Objects discovered in the peat-bogs of Laybach, A. Earthenware vase. B. Fragment of ornamented pottery. C. Bone needle. D. Earthenware weight for fishing-net. E. Fragment of jaw bone. 152 51. Small terra-cotta figures found in the Laybach pile dwellings. 153 52. Small terra-cotta figures from the Laybach pile dwellings. 154 53. Nurhag at Santa Barbara (Sardinia). 168 54. "Talayoti" at Trepuco (Minorca). 170 55. Dolmen of Castle Wellan (Ireland). 175 56. The large dolmen of Careoro, near Plouharnel. 176 57. Dolmen of Arrayolos (Portugal). 177 58. Megalithic sepulchre at Acora (Peru). 178 59. The great broken menhir of Locmariaker with Caesar's table. 186

60. Covered avenue of Dissignac (Loire-Inferieure), view of the chamber at the end of the north gallery. 189 61. Covered avenue near Antequera. 190 62. Ground plan of the Gavr'innis monument. 191 63. Monoliths at Stennis, in the Orkney Islands. 193 64. Cromlech near Bone (Algeria). 196 65. Dolmen at Pallicondah, near Madras (India). 201 66. Dolmen at Maintenon, with a table about 19 1/2 feet long. 204 67. Part of the Mane-Lud dolmen. 208 68. Sculptures on the menhirs of the covered avenue of Gavr'innis. 210 69. Dolmen with opening (India). 211 70. Dolmen near Trie (Oise). 212 71. Bronze objects found at Krasnojarsk (Siberia). 237 72. Prehistoric polisher near the ford of Beaumoulin, Nemours. 239 73. Section of a flint mine. 242 74. Plan of a gallery of flint mine. 243 75. Picks, hammers, and mattocks made of stag-horn. 245 76. Cranium of a woman from Cro-Magnon (full face). 249 77. Skull of a woman found at Sordes, showing a severe wound, from which she recovered. 250 78. Fragment of human tibia with exostosis enclosing the end of a flint arrow. 252 79. Fragment of human humerus pierced at the elbow joint (Trou d'Argent). 253 80. Mesaticephalic skull, with wound which has been trepanned 259 81. Trepanned Peruvian skull. 268


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