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THE TRUE CITIZEN, HOW TO BECOME ONE
W. F. MARKWICK, D. D. AND W. A. SMITH, A. B.
This book, intended as a supplementary reader for pupils in the seventh and eighth grades of school, has been prepared with a view to meeting a real need of the times. While there are a large number of text-books, and several readers, dealing with citizenship from the political point of view, the higher aspects of citizenship--the moral and ethical--have been seriously overlooked.
The authors of this work have searched in vain for something which would serve as an aid to the joint development of the natural faculties and the moral instincts, so as to produce a well-rounded manhood, upon which a higher type of citizenship might be built. The development of character appears, to us, to be of far greater importance, in the preparation of the youth for the discharge of the duties of public life, than is mere political instruction; for only by introducing loftier ethical standards can the grade and quality of our citizenship be raised.
It is universally conceded that ethics and civics should go hand in hand; and yet pupils pass through our schools by the thousand, without having their attention definitely called to this important subject; and only an honest desire to aid in improving this state of affairs, has led to the preparation of these pages.
The plan of the book is simple in the extreme. It consists of thirty-nine chapters,--one for each week of the school year;--to eachof which has been prefixed five memory gems; one for each school day. Especial care has been taken to use only such language as will be perfectly intelligible to the pupils for whom it is intended.
The largest possible use has been made of anecdote and incident, so as to quicken the interest and hold the attention to the end. These anecdotes have been selected from every available quarter, and no claim of originality is made concerning them or their use.
Into each of those chapters which have to do directly with the development of the natural faculties, or the moral powers, a "special illustration" has been introduced; this being clearly marked off by the insertion of its title in bold-faced type. To these special illustrations a brief bibliography has been added, in order that a fuller study of the character presented may be readily pursued where deemed desirable. It is hoped that these special illustrations will not only serve to increase the general interest; but that, by thus bringing the pupil into direct contact with these greater minds, ambitions and aspirations may be aroused which shall prove helpful in the later life.
A careful presentation of each separate theme by the teacher, will not only increase the interest in the work of the schoolroom; but, by developing a higher type of citizenship, will be a real service to our nation.
I. THE CHILD.
I. THE EDUCATION OF THE NATURAL FACULTIES II. OBSERVATION III. OBEDIENCE IV. CANDOR V. AFFECTION VI. CHEERFULNESS VII. LOVE OF THE BEAUTIFUL VIII. LOVE OF KNOWLEDGE
II. THE YOUTH.
IX. THE FIRST TRANSITION PERIOD X. INDUSTRY XI. AMBITION XII. CONCENTRATION XIII. SELF-CONTROL XIV. PERSEVERANCE XV. PROMPTNESS XVI. HONESTY XVII. COURTESY XVIII. SELF-DENIAL XIX. SELF-RESPECT XX. CONSCIENTIOUSNESS XXI. ENTHUSIASM XXII. COURAGE XXIII. SELF-HELP XXIV. HUMILITY XXV. FAITHFULNESS
III. THE MAN.
XXVI. THE SECOND TRANSITION PERIOD XXVII. ORDER XXVIII. REVERENCE XXIX. SENTIMENT XXX. DUTY XXXI. TEMPERANCE XXXII. PATRIOTISM XXXIII. INDEPENDENCE XXXIV. THE IDEAL MAN
IV. THE CITIZEN.
XXXV. WHAT CONSTITUTES GOOD CITIZENSHIP? XXXVI. THE CITIZEN AND THE HOME XXXVII. THE CITIZEN AND THE COMMUNITY XXXVIII. THE CITIZEN AND THE NATION XXXIX. THE IDEAL CITIZEN
EDUCATION OF THE NATURAL FACULTIES.
Every man stamps his value on himself.--Schiller
No capital earns such interest as personal culture.--President Eliot
The end and aim of all education is the development of character. --Francis W. Parker
One of the best effects of thorough intellectual training is a knowledge of our own capacities.--Alexander Bain
Education is a growth toward intellectual and moral perfection. --Nicholas Murray Butler
Education begins in the home, is continued through the public school and college, and finds inviting and ever-widening opportunities and possibilities throughout the entire course of life. The mere acquisition of knowledge, or the simple development of the intellect alone, may be of little value. Many who have received such imperfect or one-sided education, have proved to be but ciphers in the world; while, again, intellectual giants have sometimes been found to be but intellectual demons. Indeed, some of the worst characters in history have been men of scholarly ability and of rare academic attainments.
The true education embraces the symmetrical development of mind, body and heart. An old and wise writer has said, "Cultivate the physical exclusively, and you have an athlete or a savage; the moral only, and you have an enthusiast or a maniac; the intellectual only, and you have a diseased oddity,--it may be a monster. It is only by wisely training all of them together that the complete man may be found."
To cultivate anything--be it a plant, an animal, or a mind--is to make it grow. Nothing admits of culture but that which has a principle of life capable of being expanded. He, therefore, who does what he can to unfold all his powers and capacities, especially his nobler ones, so as to become a well-proportioned, vigorous, excellent, happy being, practices self-culture, and secures a true education.
It is a commonplace remark that "a man's faculties are strengthened by use, and weakened by disuse." To change the form of statement, they grow when they are fed and nourished, and decay when they are not fed and nourished. Moreover, every faculty demands appropriate food. What nourishes one will not always nourish another. Accordingly, one part of man's nature may grow while another withers; and one part may be fed and strengthened at the expense of another.
In Hawthorne's beautiful allegory, the "Great Stone Face," you remember how the man Ernest, by daily and admiring contemplation of the face, its dignity, its serenity, its benevolence, came, all unconsciously to himself, to possess the same qualities, and to be transformed by them, until at last he stood revealed to his neighbors as the long promised one, who should be like the Great Stone Face. So in every human life, the unrealized self is the unseen but all-powerful force that brings into subjection the will, guides the conduct, and determines the character.
"The early life of Washington is singularly transparent as to the creation and influence of the ideal. We see how one quality after another was added, until the character became complete. Manly strength, athletic power and skill, appear first; then, courtesy and refined manners; then, careful and exact business habits; then, military qualities; then, devotion to public service."
Steadily, but rapidly, the transforming work went on, until the man was
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