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- Civil Government of Virginia - 1/43 -


Robert Rowe, Charles Franks and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team.

CIVIL GOVERNMENT OF VIRGINIA

A TEXT-BOOK FOR SCHOOLS BASED UPON THE CONSTITUTION OF 1902 AND CONFORMING TO THE LAWS ENACTED IN ACCORDANCE THEREWITH

BY WM. F. FOX

SUPT. OF SCHOOLS, RICHMOND, VA.

NOTE.-Important changes in every part of the fundamental law of the State were made by the Constitutional Convention of 1901-2.

A great many of these changes did not go into full effect until as late as Feb. 1, 1904; and some are yet to be made effective by the operation of laws already passed or to be enacted hereafter. Under the circumstances the author trusts he may be pardoned if some errors or omissions are found in this work, but it is believed that in all essential points it is in harmony with the provisions of the Constitution and the laws of the State as they stand at the present time.

CONTENTS.

INTRODUCTION

I GENERAL PRINCIPLES Bill of Bights--Who May Vote and Hold Office --Elections

II LEGISLATIVE, DEPARTMENT The Senate--House of Delegates--General Assembly

III EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT Governor--Lieutenant Governor--Attorney General

IV EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT-Continued

Secretary of the Commonwealth-Treasurer-Auditor of Public Accounts--Second Auditor--Register of the Land Office--State Corporation Commission--Superintendent of the Penitentiary-- Superintendent of Public Printing--Commissioner of Agriculture and Immigration--Commissioners of the Sinking Fund--Board of State Canvassers

V. JUDICIARY DEPARTMENT

Supreme Court of Appeals--Circuit Courts--Circuit Court of the City of Richmond

VI. JUDICIARY DEPARTMENT-Continued

Corporation or Hustings Courts--Justices Courts--Hustings Court of the City of Richmond--Chancery Court of the City of Richmond--Law and Equity Court of the City of Richmond

VII OFFICERS OF COURTS Clerks--The Tipstaff and Crier--Sheriff-- Commonswealth's Attorney Attorneys at-Law Who May Practice Law in --Virginia Juries--Grand Junes--Petit Jury

VIII. COUNTY ORGANIZATION

Counties

County Officers Sheriff--Commonwealth's Attorney--County Clerk-- Treasurer--Commissioner of the Revenue--Superintendent of the Poor--County Surveyor-Superintendent of Public Schools County Board of School Commissioners--Electoral Board--Board of Supervisors--Assessors--Coroner

IX. DISTRICT ORGANIZATION

Magisterial Districts.--Supervisors.--Justices of the Peace.-- Constable.--Overseer of the Poor.--Conservators of the Peace.

X. GOVERNMENT OF CITIES AND TOWNS

Council.--Mayor.--City Sergeant.--Commissioner of the Revenue. --Commonwealth's Attorney.--Treasurer.--Sheriff of Richmond City.

XI. EDUCATION

State: Board of Education.--Superintendent of Public Instruction.

County: County and City Superintendents.--School Trustee Electoral Board.--County School Board.

District: School Districts.--School Trustees.--District Board of School Trustees.

School Funds.

Teachers.

OUTLINES or COLONIAL AND STATE HISTORY Colonial Governors.--State Governors.

CONSTITUTION OF VIRGINIA

POPULATION OF VIRGINIA AT VARIOUS DATES

INTRODUCTION.

The word GOVERNMENT means guidance or direction or management. It means also the person or persons who rule or control any establishment or institution. Wherever any number of people live together in one house, or one town, or city, or country, there must be government of some kind.

In the family the parents are the government. They guide and manage the affairs of the house. They give orders to their children as to what they must do and what they must not do, and they see that their orders are obeyed. This is government, and it is for the benefit of the family. If the children were to do as they please, there would be no peace or happiness in the home.

And in their games and amusements out of doors children find that they must not do as they please. Every game has certain rules or laws which those who take part in it are required to obey. In the game of baseball, for example, the players are not allowed to act as they like. There are rules of the play, and there is an umpire to see that the rules are observed.

In the school, too, and in all business establishments there must be government. The teachers direct the work in their classes, giving orders to the pupils as to what lessons they must study and how they must study them. In the store and factory there is a manager or master who directs the business. If there were no managers or masters there would be nothing but disorder and confusion.

We can see therefore how necessary government is, and we can understand why it is that there must be government in the country or state in which we live. There must be laws to direct men how they must behave towards one another and to punish those who do wrong. And there must be people to make the laws and people to see that they are carried out.

This is CIVIL GOVERNMENT. The word CIVIL means pertaining to the state, or to the relations between citizens and the state, and the word STATE means the whole community or body of people living under one government.

There are different kinds of government in different countries. In some countries the government is monarchical--that is, under one person, a king or emperor--and in some countries it is republican.

A republican government, or a republic, is a government in which the chief power is exercised not by one person but by all the people. The government of the United States is a republican government. The government of Virginia is a republican government. The head of the state under a republican form of government is elected by the people.

The government in a republic is usually divided into three parts or DEPARTMENTS. One department makes the laws. This is called the LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT or the legislature. It is formed of a certain number of persons who are elected at certain times, by the people, and who meet to make laws that are necessary for the good of the state or country.

The second department of government is called the EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT, and is also formed of persons who are elected by the people, and their business is to execute or carry out the laws. Their duty is to see that every one who violates any law of the country or state is brought to punishment, and that the laws made for promoting the well-being and happiness of the people are carried out.

The third department of the government is the JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT or the judiciary. Its members are, in Virginia, chosen by the legislature. Their duty is to administer the laws, that is to inquire into every case in which a person is accused of breaking the laws, and if a person is found to be guilty, to sentence him to the punishment which the law prescribes for the crime or offence he has committed.

In this book full particulars and explanations are given as to the formation of those three departments of government, the many duties assigned to each, and how those duties are performed.


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